NAPP Sample Information


Census Sample Fraction (%) Households Persons Weighted Notes
Canada 1852 20 38,623 248,543 yes Excludes many subdistricts, including significant parts of Montreal, Toronto and other urban areas. Includes both de jure and de facto concepts; use RESIDENT variable to prevent double-counting some persons.
Canada 1871 5 11,326 62,276 yes Highly stratified sample; use of weights is essential.
Canada 1881 100 799,450 4,278,174 no
Canada 1891 5; 10; 100 76,719 433,270 yes Differing sampling densities depending on location and dwelling size.
Canada 1901 5 77,997 371,373 no
Canada 1911 5 52,782 264,686 no
Denmark 1787 100 172,536 840,134 no
Denmark 1801 100 191,246 926,325 no
Great Britain 1851 2 82,935 399,216 yes Highly clustered sample of parishes; use of weights is essential.
Great Britain 1881 (a) 100 5,402,976 26,124,585 no England and Wales
Great Britain 1881 (b) 100 784,263 3,727,758 no Scotland
Great Britain 1911 100 8,053,231 36,353,455 no England and Wales
Iceland 1703 100 3,789 51,003 no
Iceland 1729 100* 906 8,072 no Full-count data for three counties: Rangárvallasýsla, Árnessýsla, and Hnappadalssýsla.
Iceland 1801 100 7,391 47,179 no
Iceland 1901 100 13,362 83,171 no Includes both de jure and de facto concepts; use RESIDENT variable to prevent double-counting some persons.
Iceland 1910 100 11,439 90,570 no
Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1819 6 17,517 65,397 yes Highly clustered sample design; use of weights is essential.
Norway 1801 100 163,650 878,936 no
Norway 1865 100 338,795 1,684,480 no
Norway 1875 2; 100 135,491 642,937 yes Different municipalities sampled at 2% or 100%; use of weights is essential. Sample includes both de jure and de facto concepts; use RESIDENT variable to prevent double-counting some persons.
Norway 1900 100 456,188 2,294,599 no Includes both de jure and de facto concepts; use RESIDENT variable to prevent double-counting some persons.
Norway 1910 100 566,426 2,468,823 no Includes both de jure and de facto concepts; use RESIDENT variable to prevent double-counting some persons.
Sweden 1880 100 1,195,645 4,624,825 no
Sweden 1890 100 1,315,712 4,843,782 no
Sweden 1900 100 1,433,209 5,200,111 no
United States 1850 (a) 100 3,705,206 19,987,946 no
United States 1850 (b) 1 37,122 197,796 no
United States 1860 1 55,324 273,596 no
United States 1870 1 80,348 383,358 no
United States 1880 (a) 100 10,423,760 50,140,482 no
United States 1880 (b) 10 1,237,002 5,882,038 yes Includes ethnic oversample; use of weights recommended. Includes education and disability variables not in US 1880(a).
United States 1900 5 871,845 3,852,852 no
United States 1910 1 218,034 923,153 no

Descriptions of NAPP datasets

1852 Canada: NAPP has 20% data for the 1852 Canadian census, with 248,543 person records and 38,623 household records. Some areas of the country, including major urban centers, are under-represented in the data because the original manuscripts were lost. See the article by the creators of the 1852 data sample for more information about missing sub-districts. A table of estimated population totals for sub-districts in Canada 1852 is also available. The census was both de facto and de jure, and thus includes both persons absent from their households and people temporarily visiting other households. In order to avoid over-counts, all aggregates should either include the absentees or the visitors so as to specify either the de jure (formal) or de facto (actual) population respectively. To select the whole population you should look at the RESIDENT variable and select either people with codes 1 and 3, or codes 1 and 2. Some recently deceased persons were enumerated and are included in the data. These cases can be identified using the appropriate unharmonized source variable ("DECES").

1871 Canada: The 1871 Census of Canada was the first census taken in each of the four original provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. The main goal of the 1871 census was to determine appropriate representation by population in the new Parliament. NAPP has 5% data for the 1871 Canadian census with 62,276 person records and 11,326 household records. The Canada 1871 census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence. More information about the sample design is available here.

1881 Canada: The 1881 Census of Canada was the second census taken in Canada. NAPP has 100% data for the 1881 Canadian census with 4,278,174 person records and 799,450 household records. The Canada 1881 census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence.

1891 Canada: The 1891 Census of Canada was the third census taken in Canada. The data are composed of three partially overlapping subsamples: a 5% sample of all persons; a 10% sample of urban centers and the central and western provinces; and 100% of all dwellings with 31 or more persons and select areas in Ontario. The sample contains 433,270 person records and 76,719 household records. The Canada 1891 census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence.

1901 Canada: The 1901 census was the fourth census taken in Canada. NAPP has 5% data for the 1901 Canadian census with 264,686 person records and 52,782 household records. The Canada 1901 census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence.

1911 Canada: The 1911 census was the fifth census taken in Canada. NAPP has 5% data for the 1911 Canadian census with 371,373 person records and 77,997 household records. The Canada 1911 census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence.

1787 Denmark: The 1787 Census of Denmark was conducted on Sunday 1 July 1787. NAPP has 100% data for the 1787 census of Denmark with 840,134 person records and 172,536 household records. The census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence.

1801 Denmark: The 1801 Census of Denmark was conducted on Sunday 1 February 1801. NAPP has 100% data for the 1801 census of Denmark with 926,325 person records and 191,246 household records. The census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence.

1851 Great Britain: The 1851 Census of Great Britain was conducted on Sunday 30 March 1851. The dataset is described in "Sample of the 1851 Census Enumerators' Books" by Michael Anderson. The sample design is highly clustered: complete parishes are included in the data, most parishes are not. Nearly all counties in England, Scotland and Wales are represented by one or more parishes. NAPP has 2% data for the 1851 British census with 399,216 person records and 82,935 household records.

1881 England and Wales: NAPP has 100% data for the 1881 British census, with 25,895,239 person records and 5,402,984 household records. The 1881 census of England and Wales was a de facto census, meaning that people were enumerated where they were found on census night.

1881 Scotland: NAPP has 100% data for the 1881 Scottish census, with 3,741,017 person records and 784,263 household records. The 1881 census of Scotland was a de facto census, meaning that people were enumerated where they were found on census night.

1911 Great Britatin: NAPP has 100% data for the 1911 census of Great Britain, with 36,353,455 person records and 8,053,231 household records. The 1911 census of Great Britain was a de facto census, meaning that people were enumerated where they were found on census night, 3 April 1911.

1703 Iceland: The 1703 census was the first census taken in Iceland and the oldest existing formal census in the world. NAPP has 100% data for the 1703 census of Iceland, with 51,003 person records and 3,789 household records. The census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence.

1729 Iceland: The 1729 census was a partial census conducted in three counties: Rangárvallasýsla, Árnessýsla, and Hnappadalssýsla. NAPP has 100% data for the census of these counties, with 8,072 person records and 906 household records. The census was a de jure census, meaning that people were enumerated according to their regular or legal residence.

1801 Iceland: NAPP has 100% data for the 1801 census of Iceland, with 47,179 person records and 7,391 household records. The 1801 census of Iceland was a de facto census, meaning that people were enumerated where they were found on census night.

1901 Iceland: NAPP has 100% data for the 1901 Iceland census, with 83,171 person records and 13,362 household records. The census was both de facto and de jure, and thus includes both persons absent from their households and people temporarily visiting other households. In order to avoid over-counts, all aggregates should either include the absentees or the visitors so as to specify either the de jure (formal) or de facto (actual) population respectively. To select the whole population you should look at the RESIDENT variable and select either people with codes 1 and 3, or codes 1 and 2.

1910 Iceland: NAPP has 100% data for the 1910 census of Iceland, with 90,570 person records and 11,439 household records. The census was both de facto and de jure, and thus includes both persons absent from their households and people temporarily visiting other households. In order to avoid over-counts, all aggregates should either include the absentees or the visitors so as to specify either the de jure (formal) or de facto (actual) population respectively. To select the whole population you should look at the RESIDENT variable and select either people with codes 1 and 3, or codes 1 and 2.

1819 Mecklenburg-Schwerin: Following a decree of the German Confederation (an organization created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna to organize the remaining states of the German nation) on 18 June 1819, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg Friedrich Franz I of Mecklenburg ordered a census to be taken in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in August 1819. The purpose of the census was to determine the exact military contingent of each Confederation territory. The Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1819 dataset has a highly clustered sample design of portions of territories. The weights are based on Territories in Mecklenburg (TERRIMS). NOTE: Because of high clustering, the sample weights may not ensure representative results for all types of analyses. For a map of the sampled areas click here

1801 Norway: NAPP has 100% data for the 1801 Norwegian census with 878,936 person records and 163,650 household records. The census was taken on a de jure (usual residence) basis.

1865 Norway: NAPP has 100% data for the 1865 Norwegian census with 1,684,480 person records and 338,795 household records. Norway 1865 census was de jure, in fact this was the last Norwegian census to include only the de jure part of the population.

1875 Norway: The sample includes has 2% data for some municipalities and 100% data for others. The 100% sampling includes all of northern Norway and the large cities, but also other scattered municipalities. For a list of municipalities with 2% data click here. There are 642,937 person records and 135,491 household records. This is the first census in Norway that introduces the explicit distinction between the de jure and the de facto population, with special fields for noting the whereabouts of absent people and the origins of temporary residents. In order to avoid over-counts, all aggregates should either include the absentees or the visitors so as to specify either the de jure (formal) or de facto (actual) population respectively. To select the whole Norwegian population you should look at the RESIDENT variable and select either people with codes 1 and 3, or codes 1 and 2.

1900 Norway: NAPP has 100% data for the 1900 Norwegian census with 2,294,599 person records and 456,188 household records. The 1900 census for Norway was both de facto and de jure, and thus includes both persons absent from their households and people temporarily visiting other households. In order to avoid over-counts, all aggregates should either include the absentees or the visitors so as to specify either the de jure (formal) or de facto (actual) population respectively. To select the whole Norwegian population you should look at the RESIDENT variable and select either people with codes 1 and 3, or codes 1 and 2.

1910 Norway: NAPP has 100% data for the 1910 Norwegian census with 2,468,823 person records and 566,426 household records. The 1910 census for Norway was both de facto and de jure, and thus includes both persons absent from their households and people temporarily visiting other households. In order to avoid over-counts, all aggregates should either include the absentees or the visitors so as to specify either the de jure (formal) or de facto (actual) population respectively. To select the whole Norwegian population you should look at the RESIDENT variable and select either people with codes 1 and 3, or codes 1 and 2.

1880 Sweden: The Swedish census was fundamentally different than censuses in other countries. In Sweden the censuses were not taken by census workers going out with a questionnaire and interviewing people in their homes. Instead the censuses were taken by vicars and parish priests who made extracts from the already existing parish books. The parish books were updated continuously by the vicar or parish priest. They kept track of persons, families and households, their birth, marriage, death, and recorded whenever a person moved within or between parishes. The priest also recorded a person's attendance to the church examinations, their knowledge in the Christian teachings, ability to read and write and many other things. The parish books were kept in all of Sweden except in the city of Stockholm where the censuses were based on the tax census. NAPP has 100% data for the 1880 Swedish census, with 4,624,825 person records and 1,195,645 household records.

1890 Sweden: The Swedish census was fundamentally different than censuses in other countries. In Sweden the censuses were not taken by census workers going out with a questionnaire and interviewing people in their homes. Instead the censuses were taken by vicars and parish priests who made extracts from the already existing parish books. The parish books were updated continuously by the vicar or parish priest. They kept track of persons, families and households, their birth, marriage, death, and recorded whenever a person moved within or between parishes. The priest also recorded a person's attendance to the church examinations, their knowledge in the Christian teachings, ability to read and write and many other things. The parish books were kept in all of Sweden except in the city of Stockholm where the censuses were based on the tax census. NAPP has 100% data for the 1890 Swedish census, with 4,843,782 person records and 1,315,712 household records.

1900 Sweden: The Swedish census was fundamentally different than censuses in other countries. In Sweden the censuses were not taken by census workers going out with a questionnaire and interviewing people in their homes. Instead the censuses were taken by vicars and parish priests who made extracts from the already existing parish books. The parish books were updated continuously by the vicar or parish priest. They kept track of persons, families and households, their birth, marriage, death, and recorded whenever a person moved within or between parishes. The priest also recorded a person's attendance to the church examinations, their knowledge in the Christian teachings, ability to read and write and many other things. The parish books were kept in all of Sweden except in the city of Stockholm where the censuses were based on the tax census. NAPP has 100% data for the 1900 Swedish census, with 5,200,111 person records and 1,433,209 household records.

1850a United States: NAPP has 100% data for the 1850 census, which we label United States 1850 (a) with 50,140,482 person records and 3,705,206 household records. All the United States censuses are taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis.

1850b United States: The United States sample of 1850 is a 1-in-100 national random sample of the free population. The African-American slaves are not included in this dataset. Individual-level data on the 1850 slave population is available at this website. All the United States censuses are taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis.

1860 United States: The United States sample of 1860 is a 1-in-100 national random sample of the free population. The African-American slaves are not included in this dataset. Individual-level data on the 1860 slave population is available at this website. All the United States censuses are taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis.

1870 United States: The United States sample of 1870 is a 1-in-100 random sample of the population with 383,358 person records. All the United States censuses are taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis.

1880a United States: NAPP has 100% data for the 1880 census, which we label United States 1880 (a) with 50,140,482 person records and 10,423,760 household records. All the United States censuses are taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis.

1880b United States: The United States 1880 (b) samples is a 1-in-10 national random sample of the population with a 1-in-5 minority oversample. "Minorities" are defined as persons whose race was Native American or African American, whose race or birthplace indicated that they were Chinese, or whose name or birthplace indicated Hispanic origins. Households including a minority were sampled at a 1-in-5 rate. This sample contains additional data on education and the disability variables that is not available in the United States (a) 100% dataset.All the United States censuses are taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis.

1900 United States: The United States 1900 sample is a 1-in-20 national random sample of the population. Alaska and Hawaii are not included in this dataset. Researchers needing data from those states should use the 1900 1% sample with oversamples from the IPUMS website. All the United States censuses are taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis.

1910 United States: The United States sample of 1910 is a 1-in-100 national random sample of the population, including Alaskans, Hawaiians, and American Indians. This sample includes data from Alaska and Hawaii, even though they were not states until 1959. All the United States censuses are taken on a de jure (usual place of residence) basis.