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Usual or temporary resident of household

Codes and Frequencies

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RESIDENT identifies whether an enumerated person is a household resident or a visitor and whether she or he was present at the time of enumeration. This variable is available only in samples that enumerated both de facto and de jure residents: Canada 1852, Iceland 1901, and Norway censuses of 1875, 1900 and 1910. It can be used to eliminate the double-counting of persons who were enumerated both at their permanent residence and at the residence they were visiting on census night.

De jure population: present residents and absent residents.

De facto population: present residents and visitors/non-residents.


The Canada 1852, Iceland 1901, and Norway censuses of 1875, 1900 and 1910 were both de jure and de facto censuses, collecting information on both usual residents and visitors. RESIDENT describes whether a person was at their usual place of residence on census day for these censuses. Persons temporarily absent from their permanent residence were enumerated at their usual (permanent) residence and at their temporary residence on the night of the census.

Users must take special care to avoid double counting people in these censuses by selecting only the de jure or de facto samples. The de jure population can be selected using codes 1 and 2. Codes 1, 3, and 4 (Canada 1852 only) jointly identify the de facto population.

The Swedish censuses of 1890 and 1900 were de jure censuses, but collected information on whether residents were present during census enumeration. This information is available in the unharmonized source variables.

The Canadian census of 1852 enumerated all persons who spent census night in the dwelling, as well as members of the family who were absent that night. Later censuses enumerated only usual residents (the de jure population).

The 1852 census identified family members who were present on census night, absent family members, and unrelated persons who were present. This latter category includes servants and other non-relatives who reside in the household, as well as non-residents. RESIDENT therefore identifies the de facto population (persons present on census night) and absent family members. Additional family membership information is available in the unharmonized source variables.

The 1901 Iceland sample separately identifies residents who were present on census night, residents absent on census night, and visitors or nonresidents on census night. The 1703, 1729, 1801 and 1910 censuses were de facto.

The censuses identify present residents, absent residents, and non-residents. The 1801 census used de jure enumeration.


  • Canada 1852: All persons
  • Iceland 1901: All persons
  • Norway 1875: All persons
  • Norway 1900: All persons
  • Norway 1910: All persons


  • Canada: 1852
  • Iceland: 1901
  • Norway: 1875, 1900, 1910