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SPRULE
Rule for linking spouse

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

SPRULE explains the criteria by which the NAPP variable SPLOC linked the person to a probable spouse.

NAPP establishes spouse-spouse links according to four basic rules, and SPRULE gives the number of the rule that applied to the link in question.

SPRULE works the same way for all countries. In all countries both partners are required to be age 12 and older and to either have a marital status of married or be the unmarried partner of the household head (see MARST and RELATE). In addition, both partners were required to share the same surname, except when linking heads to spouses or in the Scandinavian samples where SURSIM does not capture family relationships (e.g. patronymic surnames in Norway and non-reporting of child surnames in Sweden). In some samples, however, we were compelled to customize the links beyond what could be implemented more generally.

The codes for SPRULE are as follows. A lower-numbered rule (greater than 0) takes precedence over a higher numbered rule. All relationship pairings are not available in every sample. Additional conditions were added to the rules for some samples.

0 = No spouse of this person present in household.

1 = A married/in-union woman and a married/in-union man were linked because she immediately followed or preceded him in the dataset and both persons' relationship to the household head (see RELATE) justified a link, as follows:

Head to spouse
Unmarried partner to spouse
Parent to parent
Parent-in-law to parent-in-law
Child to child-in-law
Sibling to sibling-in-law

2 = A married woman and a married man who did not appear adjacently on the form were linked because:

they had one of the relationship sets listed in rule 1
the woman was at least 13 years old
the man was at least 15 years old
the man was not more than 25 years older than the woman, AND
the woman was not more than 10 years older than the man.

3 = A married/in-union woman and a married/in-union man were linked because she immediately followed or preceded him in the dataset and both persons' relationship to the household head (RELATE) suggested a possible pairing and the female spouse was no more than 10 years older or 25 years younger than the male spouse. The possible relationship pairings are as follows:

Other relative to other relative (RELATE codes 1000, 1001, 1061)
Non-relative to non-relative (RELATE codes 1000-1303)
Child to other relative
Sibling to other relative
Grandchild to grandchild-in-law
Grandparent to grandparent/grandparent-in-law/grandparent-in-law
Grandchild to other relative
Aunt to uncle
Nephew/niece to nephew/niece
Cousin to cousin
Unknown to unknown; missing to missing
Head to unknown or missing
Child to unknown or missing

4 = Same as rule 3, but the married/in-union woman was not adjacent to the married/in-union man in the data.

Comparability

This variable is comparable for all countries, but see the discussion on Family Interrelationships for discussion of these NAPP constructed variables. The distribution of codes and the quality of the links varies due to the nature of the underlying data.

Canada
No constructed family interrelationship variables are available for Canadian censuses of 1852, 1871, and 1881, as Canada did not enumerate relationship to household head in these years.

Mecklenburg-Schwerin
No constructed family interrelationship variables are available for the Mecklenburg-Schwerin census of 1819, which contains no information on relationship to household head.

Norway
Sample-specific rules were implemented for pointer construction in the Norwegian samples of 1865, 1875, and 1900 to address differences in the enumeration of relationship to the head of household (RELATE). In these samples, not all persons enumerated in position 1 in a household were recorded as household heads. In particular, people who ate separately but resided in the same structure are likely to have been recorded as living in separate households, while not being designated as a household head (see RELATE for additional details.) Most commonly the first person in the household received no relationship code (coded as 9999, or missing) or was reported to be a boarder or lodger. Often they were immediately followed by an opposite-sex individual with the relationship "spouse of head". After an examination of these cases, we concluded that it would be appropriate to link the first person in these households to an adjacent spouse, if all other criteria for linking were satisfied. A smaller number of other relationship codes can be found in position 1 (e.g. child or parent)--but no links were made in these households.

In addition, the relationship enumerated in the 1801, 1865, and 1875 Norwegian samples often appeared to be a family or subfamily relationship, rather than relationship to the householder. For instance, a child-in-law would be enumerated as a spouse, meaning the spouse of the child directly preceding her in the household. This often resulted in multiple spouses enumerated in the same household, and in these instances family interrelationship variables were not constructed; all members of these household receive a code of 0 for SPLOC. In households where it was still possible to construct pointers, spousal pointers are constructed only for spouses who are adjacent to the household head. We hope to improve on these linkages in a future release.

The Norwegian censuses of 1875 and 1900 enumerated both de jure and de facto residents (see RESIDENT). A person temporarily away from home on census day would be enumerated in two households. The pointers link individuals only at their usual residence; an individual temporarily present in a household on census day is not linked to other members of that household.

United States
For an IPUMS version of the 1850-1870 SPRULE, refer to variables US1850A_0409, US1850B_0412, US1860A_0412, US1870A_0412.

Universe

  • Canada 1891: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Canada 1901: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Denmark 1787: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Denmark 1801: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1851 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1851 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Great Britain 1851 (2%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1861 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1861 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Great Britain 1871: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1881 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1881 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1891 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1891 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1901 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1901 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Great Britain 1911: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Iceland 1703: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Iceland 1729: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Iceland 1801: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Iceland 1910: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1801: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1865: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1875: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1900: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1910: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Sweden 1880: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Sweden 1890: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Sweden 1900: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Sweden 1910: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • United States 1880 (10%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • United States 1880 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • United States 1900: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • United States 1910: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse

Availability

  • Canada: 1891, 1901, 1911
  • Denmark: 1787, 1801
  • Great Britain: 1851a, 1851b, 1851c, 1861a, 1861b, 1871, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911
  • Iceland: 1703, 1729, 1801, 1901, 1910
  • Norway: 1801, 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • United States: 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910