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Spouses location in household


This is a 2-digit numeric variable.


SPLOC is a constructed variable that indicates whether the person's spouse lived in the same household and, if so, gives the person number (PERNUM) of the spouse. SPLOC makes it easy for researchers to link the characteristics of (probable) spouses.

The method by which probable spouse-spouse links are identified is described in SPRULE.

Family interrelationship variables were not constructed in households containing 30 or more residents. In addition, pointers were not constructed for households containing multiple individuals with the relationship "spouse of head" unless the household could be subdivided into multiple sub-households each with a person identified as a household or family head. These limitations were necessary because of the uncertainty of family interrelationships in these households and members affected households receive an SPLOC code of 0.


This variable is comparable for all countries (except United States 1850, 1860, and 1870 samples). See the discussion on Family Interrelationships for discussion of these NAPP constructed variables. The quality of specific links is dependent on the relationship information available in each dataset.

No constructed family interrelationship variables are available for the Canadian censuses of 1871 and 1881, as Canada did not enumerate relationship to household head in these samples.

No constructed family interrelationship variables are available for the Mecklenburg-Schwerin census of 1819, which contains no information on relationship to household head.

Sample-specific rules were implemented for the Norwegian censuses to address differences in the coding of RELATE (relationship to the head of household) and other enumeration practices. See SPRULE for details.

United States
For 1850-1870, relationships to the household head are imputed.  In those years, SPLOC is based on imputed family relationships. For more information, see the IPUMS-USA user guide.


  • Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse


  • Canada: 1891, 1901, 1911
  • Denmark: 1787, 1801
  • Great Britain: 1851a, 1851b, 1851c, 1861a, 1861b, 1871b, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911
  • Iceland: 1703, 1729, 1801, 1901, 1910
  • Norway: 1801, 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910