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POPRULE
Rule for linking father

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

POPRULE explains the criteria by which the NAPP variable POPLOC linked the person to a probable father.

NAPP establishes child-father links according to four basic rules, and POPRULE gives the number of the rule that applied to the link in question.

POPRULE works the same way for all countries. A lower-numbered rule (greater than 0) takes precedence over a higher numbered rule. The codes for POPRULE are as follows:

0 = No father of this person present in the household.

1 = Unambiguous relationship. This rule covers four basic cases, and occurs when the person linked is 10 to 69 years younger than the probable parent. All relationship pairings are not available in every sample. The allowable relationship pairings are as follows:

Child linked to head or spouse/unmarried partner of the head
Head or sibling linked to parent
Spouse or sibling-in-law linked to parent-in-law
Child/child-in-law linked to head or spouse

2 = Grandchildren. Potential fathers are males listed as child or child-in- law in RELATE 13-79 years older than persons listed as grandchildren and who share the grandchild's surname. If there is more than one potential father, we used relative positions in the household, age and marital status to decide the link.

3 = Other relatives and nonrelatives. Link to a preceding person with a plausible relationship pairing of child-to-father, where the father is 13-79 years older, is ever-married, and shares the child's surname. The father must immediately precede the child or all intervening persons must also be linked to the father as spouse or child. Permissible relationship pairings are as follows (child to father):

Nephew/niece to sibling or sibling-in-law
Cousin to aunt/uncle
Other relative to sibling
Grandchild to other relative
Other relative to other relative (RELATE code 1000, 1001, 1061)
Non-relative to non-relative (RELATE code 1100-1303)

7 = If a child is linked to a mother (see MOMLOC and MOMRULE), and that mother is linked to a husband who has not been linked to the child by another rule, the husband is linked to the child as a stepfather, regardless of the age gap between child and husband.

Consistency checks: If a husband and wife were both linked to the same father, NAPP chose the best father link based on detailed relationship (RELATE) and proximity within the household. If a person is linked to two parents who are not linked to each other, remove one of the parental links on the basis of proximity within the household.

Comparability

This variable is comparable for all countries, but see the Family Interrelationships page for discussion of these NAPP constructed variables.

The distribution of codes and the quality of the links varies across samples due to the nature of the underlying data. In some instances customization of the linking rules was necessary because of category differences in RELATE (relationship to the head of household) and other enumeration practices that affected the data.

Father-child pairs are required to share the same surname, except when making unambiguous (rule 1) links. This requirement is also dropped in the Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, where SURSIM does not capture family relationships (e.g. patronymic surnames in Iceland and Norway and non-reporting of child surnames in Sweden).

Canada
No constructed family interrelationship variables are available for the 1852, 1871, and 1881 Canadian censuses, as Canada did not enumerate relationship to household head in these years. However, information about family interrelationship can be deduced from RELATE in the 1891 and 1901 censuses. Future releases of NAPP will include imputed versions of these variables, similar to the IMPMOM, IMPPOP, and IMPSP in IPUMS-USA.

Family interrelationship variables are available in both the 1801 and 1901 samples. The 1901 census enumerated both the de jure and de facto populations.

Norway
Sample-specific rules were implemented for pointer construction in the Norwegian samples of 1865, 1875, and 1900 to address differences in the enumeration of relationship to the head of household (RELATE). In particular, people who ate separately but resided in the same structure are likely to have been recorded as living in separate households, while not being designated as a household head (see RELATE for additional details.) Most commonly the first person in the household received no relationship code (coded as 9999, or missing) or was reported to be a boarder or lodger. Often they were immediately followed by an opposite-sex individual with the relationship "spouse of head" or by a "child". Links between children and the first person in these households were allowed if the potential father directly precedes the child or if all intervening persons are also linked to the first person as spouse or child.

In addition, the relationship enumerated in the 1801, 1865, and 1875 Norwegian samples often appeared to be a family or subfamily relationship, rather than relationship to the householder. For instance, a grandchild would be enumerated as a child, meaning they are the child of the person who directly precedes them in the household. In households where it was possible to construct pointers, POPLOC is constructed only for children adjacent to the household head or his spouse, and for links between a head and parent or a spouse and parent-in-law. We hope to improve on these linkages in a future release.

The Norwegian censuses of 1875 and 1900 enumerated both de jure and de facto residents (see RESIDENT) A person temporarily away from home on census day would be enumerated in two households. The pointers link individuals only at their usual residence; an individual temporarily present in a household on census day is not linked to other members of that household.

Sweden
Family interrelationship variables for the Swedish censuses were constructed by the National Archives of Sweden. The source data for POPRULE identify individuals without a father present in the household and cases that were linked based on values in the Swedish family relationship variables. See the unharmonized source variables for additional detail.

United States
For an IPUMS version of the 1850-1870 POPRULE, refer to variables US1850A_0407, US1850B_0409, US1860A_0409, US1870A_0409.

Universe

  • Canada 1891: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Canada 1901: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Canada 1911: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Denmark 1787: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Denmark 1801: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1851 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1851 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Great Britain 1851 (2%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1861 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1861 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Great Britain 1871: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1881 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1881 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1891 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1891 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Scotland 1901 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • England and Wales 1901 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Great Britain 1911: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Iceland 1703: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Iceland 1729: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Iceland 1801: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Iceland 1910: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1801: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1865: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1875: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1900: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Norway 1910: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • Sweden 1880: All persons
  • Sweden 1890: All persons
  • Sweden 1900: All persons
  • Sweden 1910: All persons
  • United States 1880 (10%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • United States 1880 (100%): Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • United States 1900: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse
  • United States 1910: Persons in households of 30 people or less with only one head and/or only one spouse

Availability

  • Canada: 1891, 1901, 1911
  • Denmark: 1787, 1801
  • Great Britain: 1851a, 1851b, 1851c, 1861a, 1861b, 1871, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911
  • Iceland: 1703, 1729, 1801, 1901, 1910
  • Norway: 1801, 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • United States: 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910