Questionnaire Text

Canada 1871 Great Britain 1871b Iceland 1729 Norway 1910
Canada 1881 Great Britain 1881a Iceland 1801 Sweden 1880
Canada 1891 Great Britain 1881b Iceland 1901 Sweden 1890
Canada 1901 Great Britain 1891a Iceland 1910 Sweden 1900
Denmark 1787 Great Britain 1891b Mecklenburg 1819 Sweden 1910
Denmark 1801 Great Britain 1901a Norway 1801 United States 1880a
Great Britain 1851a Great Britain 1901b Norway 1865
Great Britain 1861a Great Britain 1911 Norway 1875
Great Britain 1861b Iceland 1703 Norway 1900
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Canada 1871 — source variable CA1871A_0414 — Occupation, NAPP-modified HISCO code
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____ Occupation
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Column 14. The profession, trade, or occupation, must be entered in full, as given. When two of these are united in one person, both may or may not be given; the point being decided by the importance attached to the fact by the person himself. When sons follow the professions or occupations of their fathers, and are associated with them, the same descriptions it to be inserted. For instance, a farmer's son, working on his father's farm, is a farmer; a carpenter's son, in the same way, a carpenter; and so other young men, when studying professions, are to be inscribed as, Medical Student, Law Student; and when apprenticed to trades, are to be entered in a similar way. Young men at colleges, but no school children, are to be entered as students.

In the case of women, unless they have a definite occupation besides their share in the work of the family or household, the column is to be filled with the sign - ; as also in the case of children. If they have a special occupation, such as a seamstress, clerk, factory hand, then if should be entered accordingly.


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Canada 1881 — source variable CA1881A_0420 — Occupation, NAPP-modified HISCO code
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Personal Information
7. ____ Names

8. ____ Sex

9. ____ Age

10. ____ Born within last twelve months

11. ____ Country or Province of birth

12. ____ Religion

13. ____ Origin

14. ____ Profession, Occupation, or Trade

15. ____ Married or Widowed

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Column 14. The profession, trade, or occupation, must be entered in full, as given. When two of these are united in one person, both may, or ;may not be given; the point being decided by the importance attached to the fact by the person himself. When sons follow the professions or occupations of their fathers, and are associated with them, the same description is to be inserted. For instance, a farmer's son, working on his father's farm, is a farmer; a carpenter's son, in the same way, a carpenter; and so other young men, when studying professions, are to be inscribed as Medical Student, Law Student and when apprenticed to trades, are to be entered in a similar way. Young men at colleges, but not school children, are to be entered as students.

In the case of women, unless they have a definite occupation besides their share in the work of the family or household, the column is to be filled with the sign -; as also in the case of children. If they have a special occupation, such as seamstress, clerk, factory hand, then it should be entered accordingly.


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Canada 1891 — source variable CA1891A_0454 — First occupation stated, HISCO classification
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16. Profession, occupation or trade: _______________________________
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Column 16. The profession, trade or occupation must be entered in full; as given to the enumerator. When two of these are united in one person both mayor may not be given; the point being decided by the importance attached to the fact by the person himself. When sons follow the professions or occupations of their fathers, and are associated with them, the same description is to be inserted. For instance, a farmer's son, working on his father's farm, is a farmer; a carpenter's son, working in his father's shop, a carpenter; and so other young men, when 'studying professions, are to be registered as "Medical student", "Law student", etc.; and when apprenticed to trades, are to be entered in a similar way. Young men at colleges (but not school children) are to be entered as students.

In the case of women, unless they have a definite occupation besides their share in the work of the family or household the column is to be filled with the sign "--"; as also in the case of children. If they have a special occupation, such as seamstress, clerk, factory hand, and c., then that fact should be entered accordingly.

Discrepancies in former census-takings as regards statistics of occupation have arisen from the lack of full description. Indefinite terms have been used, which the Department has.

[p. 14]

been unable properly to classify, owing to the absence of full particulars. As each occupation must have a fully descriptive designation it is the enumerator's fault if that designation is not found out and written at length upon the schedule. You cannot be too explicit in stating occupations. As a general rule, in each case you can give:

The general name of the occupation
The particular branch followed
The material worked upon.

Thirty years ago a shoemaker made a whole shoe, and a tailor made a whole suit of clothes; at the present time, owing to the sub-division of labour, few workmen begin and complete any article of manufacture. In very branch of work the specialist has succeeded the general worker, and statistics of occupation at the present day must possess the most specific detail or they will not satisfy the demands of the inquirer. To secure that specific detail we supply, for your information and guidance, the following:

Accountant: Too indefinite. State kind of business, as bank accountant, insurance accountant, etc.
Agent: Too indefinite. State kind of business, as book agent, commercial agent, cotton-mill agent, fire (or life) insurance agent, etc.
Animals, care of: Distinguish carefully between those driving horses and those doing work in barns, stables, etc.
Apprentice: Too indefinite. State kind of business, as carpenter's apprentice, painter's apprentice, machinist's apprentice, etc.,
Artist: Too indefinite. State branch of artistic work, artist-painter in oils; artist-water colours; artist-engraver; artist-sculptor, etc.
Author: Too indefinite. State whether editors, reporters, journalists (correspondents), magazine writers, novelists, historians, etc.
Bank officers: Too indefinite. State particular position filled, as bank president, bank cashier, bank teller, bank clerk, etc.
Book-keeper: State kind of business, as book-keeper-wholesale dry goods; book-keeper-grocery store; book-keeper, cotton manufacturing company, etc.
Broker: State kind of goods bought and sold, as stock and money broker, wool broker, real estate broker, insurance, broker, pawnbroker, etc.
Builder: Too indefinite. State whether house builders, bridge builders, etc., as the case may be.
Butcher: Distinguish between butchers who kill cattle, swine, etc. at au abattoir or slaughter-house, and provision dealers who sell meat and vegetables.
Clerk: Too indefinite. Write kind of business, as clerk grocery store; clerk, gas company; clerk, post office; clerk
[p. 15]
woollen mill, etc. Distinguish carefully between clerks, bookkeepers and salesmen.
Collector: Too indefinite. State business, as bill collector, etc.
Commissioner: Indefinite. Use a more explicit word to denote occupation
Compositor: Distinguish between compositors who set type, pressmen who run printing-presses and job printers who usually set type and run presses. Use "printer" for those who are not confined to one branch of the business, as above described.
Conductor: Indefinite. State whether steam railway conductor, horse railway conductor, etc.
Contractor: Indefinite. Use a more explicit designation.
Convict: State occupation followed in prison. If unemployed, give occupation, if any, before imprisonment.
Court Officer: State particular position filled, as, clerk, constable, marshal, etc.
Dealer: By dealers are meant merchants, storekeepers, traders, etc. -- those who buy and sell goods as a business. These terms are all too indefinite. The kind of business must be given in every case, and whether wholesale, retail, jobbing or commission; as, retail dealers, books and stationery; wholesale dealer; carpets; retail dealers, groceries; whole- sale dealer, coal; retail dealer, tinware, and c. The terms milkman and marketman are sufficiently explicit.
Driver: See "Animals, care of"
Engineer: Too indefinite. State whether a locomotive or railway engineer, stationary engineer, steamboat engineer, civil engineer, etc., as the case may be.
Employee: This term is too indefinite, and should not be used in this column. There is no business in which a more explicit word cannot be found.
Factory hand (or operative): This term should not be used. Even if the kind of business is given as cotton mill, factory operative-that is not sufficiently definite. The actual occupation or kind of labour done, as cotton mill spinner, is what is needed.
Farmer: Distinguish between farmer, market gardener, seed gardeners, orchard men, nursery men, florists, etc.
Farm labourer: A person employed by a farmer. (See "Labourers" for further instructions concerning them).
Finisher: Indefinite. Always state the "article finished"
Fireman: State whether railway fireman, steamboat fireman, stationary engine fireman, etc., or member of Fire Department.
Foreman: State kind of business in every case, as machine shop foreman, etc.
Government: State, first, whether, in Federal, Provincial, city or town service; second, in what branch of that service; and, third, the particular position filled, as captain, of Canadian force, Finance Department accountant, town constable, etc.
Housekeeper: Use this term only for such persons as receive wages or salary for their services.
[p. 16]
Huckster: State kind of articles sold.
Inspector: Indefinite. State "what is inspected", as gas inspector, milk inspector, etc.
Jobber: see "Dealer" and "Merchant"
Judge: State whether Federal or Provincial judge (or Justice) and particular position filled, as Supreme Court Judge; Police Court.
Labourer: State kind of labour, as farm labourer, market garden labourer, railway labourer, brick mason's labourer, etc., as the case may be.
Maker: Be careful not to confound makers and manufacturers. A maker of any article is the person who begins, continues and completes its fabrication. Thus, a person who makes a boot in every part himself is a bootmaker. Owing to the division of labour, previously explained, there fi.re now comparatively few persons in any branch of industry who make an entire article; but, instead, they make parts of the article, as, piano leg maker. Instead of furniture-maker, write chairmaker, sofa-maker, and c., as the calm may be. Of course, chocolate- maker, bonnet-maker, lace-maker, and such terms, where the article made is plainly defined, and where the labour is, not divided, can be properly used.
Manager: State "what is managed", as telephone company manager; express company-general manager, etc.; rail, way-general manager.
Manufacturer: Use this term for those who carryon the business of manufacturing. They are always employers, and this latter word is comprehended by manufacturers. State the article or kind of goods manufactured, as cotton goods manufacturer; chocolate manufacturer; woollen good manufacturer ; bonnet manufacturer; furniture manufacturer, etc., as much in detail as the case will allow.
Mason: Indefinite. State whether brick or stone mason.
Mechanic: A term that is indefinite and of no statistical value. Do not use it, but give the name of the occupation, as carpenter, painter, glazier, plumber, etc.
Merchant: See "Dealer". A merchant may be a wholesale, jobbing, retail, or commission dealer, or an agent. State always the kind of goods bought and sold.
Messenger: State "what kind of a messenger", as telegraph messenger, express company messenger, etc.
Musician: Indefinite. State whether a professional vocalist or instrumentalist, and, if the latter, what musical instrument as pianist, violinist, etc.
Officer: Indefinite. State always the particular held, as cotton manufacturing company-president; company-treasurer, etc., as the case may be.
Official: see "Government"
Overseer: State "what the person oversees", spinner-overseer; street labourers-overseer, etc. Operative: Indefinite (see Factory hand). Do not use term, but a more explicit one, giving the general name of the
[p. 17]
business, the material worked upon, and the particular nature of the work done, as woollen goods-dye-house finisher, etc.
Packer: State "what they pack", as paper packer; pork packer; wholesale crockery packer, etc.
Pauper.-Write pauper and give occupation, if any, before becoming a pauper.
Paymaster: State business, as railway paymaster, cottonmill, paymaster, etc.
Peddler: State kind of goods sold, as tinware peddler, notion peddler, etc.
Personal service: State plainly the kind of work done, as barber, bootblack, companion, janitor, nurse, watchman, etc. When possible, state where the work is performed, as schoolhouse janitor.
Physicians and surgeons: State, in the case of physician, whether regular practitioners and the school of medicine, as physician-allopathic. Designate particularly those who are physicians only, surgeons only, or physicians and surgeons; distinguish specialists as aurists, oculists, dentists, veterinary surgeons, etc.
Porter: State kind of business, as wholesale dry goods porter, etc.
Printer and Pressman: See "Compositor". State kind of business, whether newspaper, book, music, lithographic, chromolithographic, heliotype, artotype, etc.
Publisher: State "what he publishes", as newspapers, books, maps, engravings, etc.
Sailor: Distinguish between sailors or mariners, and fishermen. State whether on steam or sailing vessels.
Salesman: State kind of goods sold, as hardware salesman, dry goods salesman, etc. Do not confound with clerks, which heading see. Follow the above rule in case of travelling salesmen, as clothing travelling salesman, etc.
Scientific person: Distinguish by the most explicit names, as architects, botanists, naturalists, geologists, astronomers, surveyors, civil engineers, etc.
Secretary: Indefinite. State kind of business, as Insurance company-secretary, etc.
Servant, domestic: Many families employ but one servant, whose duties are of a general nature. In such cases say-general servant. Where possible give name indicating particular service, and place where service is performed, as cook, family; chambermaid, hotel; table girl, family, etc.
Speculator: Indefinite. State articles or goods dealt in, as speculator-mining stocks.
Storekeeper: see "Dealer" and "Merchant"
Superintendent: State "what he superintends", as horse railway superintendent; or the kind of manufacturing business.
Tailor: Distinguish custom-made and ready-made, and state particular part of work done, as ready-made, tailorcutter, etc.
[p.18]
Teacher: Distinguish professors, tutors governesses and teachers. State whether in college; Latin, high normal, grammar or primary schools; academy; seminary, etc. State, whether public or private family. Specify branches taught as languages, music, painting, dancing, etc.
Teamster: (see "Animals, care of")
Trader: (see "Dealer and merchant")
Treasurer: State kind of business, as cotton-mill-treasurer, etc.


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Canada 1901 — source variable CA1901A_0421 — Occupation, NAPP-modified HISCO code

No questionnaire text is available for this sample.


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Denmark 1787 — source variable DK1787A_0416 — Primary occupation
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The person's title, office, business, craft, or occupation
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4. As a rule to be used by the taking as well in the royal boroughs as in the rural districts, is that everyone in the census is regarded as belonging to the house, in which he sleeps, also that when a person who usually sleeps in one house is absent either solely for business purpose in the country or abroad with the intention of coming back; and as the census taking must take place for each farm and house individually, so that for each farm or house is listed all the persons present there, so must in the lists also be noted the full name of each person together with age, whereby should be noticed the current year and not the year turned, e.g. for new born children should be noticed 1 (and for the person in his 26th year be written 26 and not 25), that for each person is indicated what he is in the household, such as man, wife, a child, legitimate or illegitimate, from the first, second or whatever marriage, a relative and then how close, a servant and also journeyman and boy, tenants, lodgers, billeted etc. And for each person is explained whether the person is married for the first, second or for what time or not married or in widowhood for the first, second or whatever time; and the person’s title, occupation, business, handicraft or living is noticed and in so far as they might be handicapped or live solely by alms.

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Denmark 1801 — source variable DK1801A_0412 — Primary occupation
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The person's title, office, business, craft, or occupation, or what they live of.
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Regarding age, then it should be the upcoming year of age and not the achieved age that is recorded, e.g. for newborn children is recorded 1 and for the person who is in his 26th year is written 26 and not 25. For each person is specified what it is in the household, like husband, wife, child, kin and how close, servant, and journeyman and boy, lodger, quartered and so forth; also must for each person be explained, whether he is married for the first, second or what time; or unmarried or in widowhood for the first, second or what time; the persons’ title, office, business, handicraft or occupation, or what they live of, must likewise be given, and if they might be disabled or live by alms.

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Great Britain 1851a — source variable GB1851A_0417 — HISCO occupation
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Instruction to the enumerator

For his guidance in completing and correcting the column headed "Rank, profession, or occupation".

It is desirable not only that the return of the rank, profession, or occupation of every person in Great Britain should be complete and accurate, but also that the particulars should be entered on a uniform plan. To assist the Enumerator, the following detailed instructions, with numerous examples, have been drawn up.

He is requested to see in every case, before leaving the house, that the column for rank and occupation, as well as the rest of the Householder's Schedule, is correctly filled in conformity with the instructions.

The Superior titles of Peers and other persons of rank are to be inserted, as well as high office which they may hold. Magistrates, aldermen, and other important public officers to state their profession after their official title.

Examples:
Duke of ----- ; Lord Lieutenant of ----- shire.
Baronet, M.P.
Baron of the Exchequer.
Stipendiary Magistrate.
Vicar of Sutton; Justice of the Peace.
Commissioner in Bankruptcy.
Alderman; Grocer (Master employing 10 men).
Clerk of Peace; Solicitor.


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Great Britain 1861a — source variable GB1861A_0417 — HISCO occupation

No questionnaire text is available for this sample.


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Great Britain 1861b — source variable GB1861B_0417 — HISCO occupation
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Rank, profession, or occupation

____ Rank, profession, or occupation

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Correction of the column headed- Rank, Profession, or Occupation
[17] It is desirable not only that the return of the rank, profession or occupation of every person in England should be completed and accurate, but also that the particulars should be entered on a uniform plan. Although special instructions on this head are printed on the householder's schedule, instances of defective information will doubtless be of frequent occurrence. It will be your duty in entering the schedules in the enumeration book (if you have not already done so on receiving the schedules from the occupiers, as above directed,) to correct any incomplete descriptions of occupations. For your guidance in correcting incomplete descriptions the following examples and instructions are given:

Examples and instructions for entering more correct descriptions

  • Incomplete descriptions
  • Agent………………….. State particular branch; as Land Agent, Brewer's Agent, Lead Agent.
  • Almsman……………….State former or present occupation; as Almsman (agricultural laborer).
  • Bleacher………………..State the manufacture or material; as Cotton Bleacher, Lace Bleacher.
  • Broker…………………..State the branch of business; as Wool Broker, Furniture Broker.
  • Button-maker……………State the material; as Metal Button-maker, Bone Button-maker.
  • Carder…………………... State the manufacture of material; as Wool Carder, Cotton Carder
  • Clerk……………………..No person whatever should be described as Clerk simply, but as Banker's clerk, Silk mercer's Clerk, Parish Clerk, etc.
  • Coachman………………..Coachman (Domestic Servant), Omnibus Coachman.
  • Collar-maker…………….. Horse Collar-maker, Dog Collar-maker, Shirt Collar-maker.
  • Collector………………….Rent Collector, Rate Collector, Toll Collector.
  • Contractor………………..Road Contractor, Railway Contractor.
  • Cook……………………..Cook (Domestic Servant), Cook (Professed).
  • Cutter……………………. State the manufacture or trade; as Lace Cutter, Needle Cutter.
  • Draper…………………….Woollen Draper, Linen Draper.
  • Dresser…………………..State the particular manufacture or material; as Silk Dresser, Worsted Dresser.
  • Engineer…………………Civil Engineer to be so described; but a workman employed at an engine manufactory to be described as an Engine Smith, and not as an Engineer.
  • Engine-driver …………. State whether in connection with a manufactory, or a railway, steam
  • Engine-feeder, vessel, etc.; as Engine- Feeder at Cotton Factory, Railway Engine-
  • Engine-hand, driver.
  • Engine-worker
  • Factory-worker………….State the manufacture; as Silk Factory-worker, Cotton Factory-worker.
  • Feeder…………………... State the manufacture; as Cotton feeder, Worsted feeder.
  • Finisher…………………. State the manufacture; as Needle Finisher, Lace Finisher.
  • Fireman………………… This term should only be applied to men of the Fire Brigade.
  • Founder………………… State the Branch; as Brass Founder, Iron Founder.
  • Framework-knitter……… State the manufacture; as Stocking Framework-knitter.
  • Furnace-man……………. State the manufacture in which the furnace is used.
  • Gardener………………... Gardener (Domestic Servant), Gardener (Master).
  • Glove-maker, Glover…… State the material; as Glover (Leather), Glove-maker (Silk).
  • Handloom-weaver………. State the manufacture; as Silk Handloom-weaver.
  • Inspector………………… State further particulars as to nature of his office.
  • Jobber…………………… State the nature of his employment.
  • Keeper………………….. Gamekeeper, Lodge keeper, Keeper in a Lunatic Asylum.
  • Labourer……………….. State the branch of labour; as Agricultural Labourer, Dock Labourer.
  • Machine-worker……….. State the manufacture in which machine is employed.
  • Manufacturer…………… State the manufacture in which engaged; as Earthenware Manufacturer, Cotton Manufacturer.
  • Mechanic…………….....State the branch of business or manufacture in which he works.
  • Merchant……………….. State the particular branch of business; as East India Merchant, Timber Merchant.
  • Miner……………………. State invariably the particular metals or minerals; as Iron-miner, Coal-miner, Copper-miner, Lead-miner, Tin-miner, Copper and Tin-miner.
  • Moulder………………… State the particular manufacture; as Iron-moulder, Brass-moulder.
  • Nurse……………………. Nurse at Hospital, Nurse (Domestic Servant).
  • Officer…………… Officers of Volunteers should return their usual occupations.
  • Overlooker……….. State the manufacture, etc.; as Overlooker in a Cotton Factory.
  • Painter……………. Painter and Plumber; Portrait Painter, Herald Painter.
  • Pensioner…………. Chelsea Pensioner, Greenwich Pensioner, East India Pensioner. (If engaged in any occupation it should likewise be stated.)
  • Powerloom-weaver.. State the branch of manufacture; as Wool Powerloom-weaver.
  • Quarrier………… State the particular material; as Stone Quarrier, Slate Quarrier.
  • Sailor……………. Seaman, R.N.; Seaman (Merchant Service).
  • Salesman…………. Meat Salesman, Cattle Salesman, Clothes Salesman.
  • Servant…………… Domestic Servant, Farm Servant.
  • Shopkeeper, Shopman.... State the branch of Business.
  • Smith…………………...Blacksmith, Whitesmith, Engine-smith.
  • Stoker………………….. A man who attends to the fire in a factory or on board a steam-vessel should be described as Stoker in a Steam Vessel, Stoker in a Silk Factory etc.
  • Timekeeper……………. Omnibus Timekeeper, Railway Timekeeper.
  • Watchman…………….. Private Watchman, Watchman in a Cotton Factory.
  • Warehouseman………… If a Manchester Warehouseman, to be so described.
  • Weaver………………… State the branch of manufacture; as Silk Weaver, Cotton Weaver.
  • Winder………………… State the branch of manufacture; as Silk Winder, Cotton Winder.

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Great Britain 1871b — source variable GB1871B_0417 — HISCO occupation code
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Instructions for filling up the column headed "Rank, Profession or Occupation."

A person following more distinct occupations than one, should insert them in the order of their importance.

1. The Superior Titles of peers and the other Persons of Rank to be inserted, as well as any important office which they may hold.

2. Members of Parliament, Magistrates, Councilors and other important public officers to state their profession or occupations, in any, after their official rank or title.

3. All persons serving in the Army and Navy to state their rank and branch of the service to which they belong Officers to state whether on the Active or Retired List; Chelsea, Greenwich, and other Pensioners, to be so designated

4. All persons in the Civil Service to state their rank, and the department or branch to which they belong; those retired or superannuated to be distinguished.

5. Ministers of Religion- Clergy of the Church of Scotland to return themselves as "Minister of ____ Parish," "Assistant Minister of _____ Parish," or "Minister of Establish Church (no charge)." Episcopalian Clergymen, Roman Catholic Priests, and Minister of Foreign Churches, to return themselves as such, and to state the name of the church or chapel in which they officiate. Dissenting Ministers to return themselves as "Minister of ____ Free Church," "Minister of ____ United Presbyterian Chapel," "Minister of ____ Independent Chapel," etc. Local or occasional preachers must return their ordinary occupations; but may add "Local Methodist preacher,"etc., etc.

6. Legal profession- Advocates, to state whether or not they are in actual practice. Advocates in Aberdeen will add the words "in Aberdeen" to the description "Advocate." The designation "Writer to the Signet," or "Solicitor" to be confined to those whose names are actually upon the Roll. Other persons practicing the law to designate themselves as "Writer," Procurator," etc., according to circumstances. Advocates’ clerks are so to return themselves. Clerks in lawyers’ offices should state whether they are managing, apprenticed, or general clerk.

7. Members of the Medical profession to state whether they practice as physician, surgeon, dentist, oculist, general practitioner, assistant, etc., or are "not practicing". They must also state the University or other Society of which they are Graduates, Fellows, or Licentiates.

8. Professors, Teachers, Public writers, Authors, and Scientific men -- to state the particular branch of Science or Literature which they follow; Artists, the art which they cultivate. Graduates should their degrees in this column.

9. Students of Theology, Law, Medicine, or Arts, of any University to be so returned.

10. Scholars- Children or young person attending a school, or receiving regular instruction at home, to be returned as "Scholars."

11. Landowners- Proprietors of land in Scotland, being agricultural land pasturage, moor, or woodland, in addition to their rank or occupation, to state that they are landowners. But no person to be so described in respect of land attached to a house or houses, and not exceeding one acre in extent.

12. Farmers- This term is to be applied only to the occupier of land, who are to state the number of acres occupied, and the number of men, women, and boys employed on the farm on April 3rd. Examples: "Farmer of 317 acres (of which 105 arable), employing 8 laborers and 3 boys." Sons or daughters employed at home or on the farm, may be returned- "Farmer's son," "Farmer's daughter." Men employed on the farm and sleeping in the farmer’s house must be described in the schedule as farm servants.

13. Agricultural labourers, shepherds, and others employed on farms, but not living in the famer’s house, must be desribed as agricultural labourers, shepherds, etc.

14. Persons engaged in commerce, as Merchants, Brokers, Agents, etc., to state in all cases the particular branch of Commerce in which they are engaged, or the staple in which they chiefly deal. Examples: "East India Merchant," "Members of the ____ Stock Exchange," "Cotton Broker." Commercial Clerk, Commercial Traveller, Shopman- always add what branch of business.

15. In Trades, manufactures, or other business masters must, in all cases, be distinguished; Example: "Carpenter-Master, employing 6 men and 2 boys;" inserting always the number of persons of the trade in his employ, if any, on April 3rd. In the case of Firms, the number of persons employed should be returned by the senior or someone partner only.

16. Workers in mines or manufactures, and generally in the Mechanical Arts, should distinctly state the particular branch of work, and the material, if they are not implied in the names, as in coal-miner, brass-founder, silk-throwster. where the trade is much subdivided, both trade and branch are to be returned thus: "watchmaker-finisher;" "printer-compositor".

17. Engineers- Civil Engineers to be so described. Workmen employed in works or factories are to be distinctly described. Example: "Engine Smith at Factory," "Engine Fitter at Works." Engine Drivers, Stokers, and Firemen, to be described in connection with the manufactory, railway, steam- vessel, etc. in which they are employed. Examples: "Railway Engine Driver," "Stoker in Cotton Factory." "Engineer" alone is not to be used.

18. Artisans and mechanics should invariable state their particular branch of mechanical art or business in which they are employed.

19. Weaver- "Silk," "Wool," "Worsted," "Cotton," etc., should always be written before this general term, so as to express distinctly the material he weaves, thus: "Silk- Weaver."

20. Domestic servants should be described according to the nature of their service, adding in all cases "Domestic Servant." Examples: "Coachman- Domestic Servant;" "Gardner- Domestic Servant."

21. Messengers, porters, laborers, to be described according to the nature of their employment on the day of the Census. Examples: "Railway Porter," "Bricklayer’s Laborer," "Laborer in Iron Works."

22. Persons ordinarily engaged in some industry, but out of employment on April 3rd, should be so described, as "Coalminer, unemployed," "Printer, unemployed."

23. Persons following no profession, trade, or Calling and holding no public office, but deriving their incomes chiefly from houses, dividends, interest of money, annuities, etc., may describe themselves accordingly. The indefinite terms Gentleman, squire, are not to be used. Persons who have retired from business may be entered thus: "Retired Farmer," "Retired Grocer."

24. Women and children- The occupations of those who are regularly employed from home, or who follow any business at home, is to be distinctly recorded. See also instruction number 10.

Table No. 14- Householder’s Schedule

List the members of this family, of visitors, and of servants, who slept or abode in this dwelling on the night of Sunday, April 2nd, 1871.

5. Rank, profession, or occupation
Before filling in this column, you are requested to read the Instructions on the other side.

[See: Instructions for filling up the column headed "Rank, profession or occupation."]


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Great Britain 1881a — source variable GB1881A_0417 — HISCO occupation
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Householder's Schedule

Prepared under the direction of the Local Government Board, pursuant to the Act of 43 and 44 Vict. c. 37.

To the Occupier

You are requested to insert the particulars specified on the other side, in compliance with an Act passed during the last Session of Parliament, and which received the Royal assent on the 7th September 1880

List of the members of this family, of visitors, of boarders, and of servants, who slept or abode in this dwelling on the night of Sunday, April 3rd, 1881

6. Rank, Profession, or Occupation.

A person following more distinct occupations than one, should insert each of them in order of their importance.

(a) The Titles of peers and other persons of rank to be inserted, as any important Office they may hold.

(b) Members of Parliament, Magistrates, Alderamen, and other important public Officers, to state their profession or occupation, if any, after their official rank or title.

(c) All persons serving in the Army and Navy, to state their rank and the branch to which they belong. Officers to state whether on the Active or Retired List; Chelsea, Greenwich, and other Pensioners, to be so designated.

(d) All persons in the Civil Service to state their rank, and the department or branch to which they belong; those retired or superannuated to be so designated.

(e) Ministers of religion: CLERGYMEN of the Church of England to return themselves as "Rector of --," Vicar of--," Curate of --," etc., or "without cure of souls." They are requested not to employ the indefinite term "Clerk." Roman Catholic Priests, and Ministers of Foreign Churches, to return themselves as such, and to state the name of the church or chapel, if any, in which they officiate. Dissenting Ministers to return themselves as "Independent Minister of -- Chapel," "Wesleyan Minister of -- Chapel," etc. Local or occasional preachers must return their ordinary occupations ; but may add "Local Methodist preacher," etc., etc.

(f) Legal Profession: Barristers to state whether or not they are in actual practice. The designation Solicitor to be confined to those whose names are actually on the Roll. Barristers' Clerks are so to return themselves. Clerks in Solicitors' Offices should state whether they are Solicitors Managing, Articled, or General Clerk. Officers of any Court to state the name of the Office, and the name of the Court.

(g) Members of the Medical Profession to state whether they practice as Physician, Surgeon, Dentist, Oculist, General Practitioner, Assistant, etc., or are "not practicing." They must also state the University or other Society of which they are Graduates, Fellows, or Licentiates.

(h) Professors, Teachers, Public Writers, Authors and Scientific MeN: to state the particular branch or Science or Literature which they follow; Artists, the art which they cultivate. Graduates should enter their degrees in this column.

(i) Students of Theology, Law, or Medicine, and Undergraduates of any University, to be so returned.

(j) Scholars: Children or young persons attending a School, or receiving regular instruction at home, to be returned as "Scholars".

(k) Farmers to state the number of acres occupied, and the number of men, women, and boys employed on the farm at the time of the Census. -- Example:"Farmer of 317 Acres, employing 8 Labourers and 3 Boys." Sons or Daughters employed at home or on the farm should be returned--"Farmer's Son," "Farmer's Daughter." Men employed on the farm and sleeping in the Farmer's house must be described in the schedule as Farm Servants.

(l) Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds, and other employed on Farms, but not living in the Farmer's house, must be described as Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds, etc.

(m) Persons engaged in commerce as Merchants, Brokers, Agents, etc., to state in all cases the particular branch of Commerce in which they are engaged or the staple in which they chiefly deal. -- Examples: "East India Merchant," "Member of -- Stock Exchange," "Cotton Broker." Commercial Clerk, Commercial Traveller, Shopman -- always to add in what branch of business.

(n) In trades, manufactures or other Business, Masters must, in all cases, be so designated.--Example: "Carpenter--Master, employing 6 men and 2 boys; inserting always the number of workpeople in their employ at the time of the Census. In the case of Firms, the number of persons employed should be returned by the senior or some one partner only.

(o) Workers in Manufactures, and generally in the Mechanical Arts, should distinctly state the particular Branch of Work, and the Material, if they are not implied in the names, as in Brass-founder, Silk-throwster. Where the trade is much sub-divided, both trade and branch are to be returned, thus -- "Watchmaker--Finisher;" "Printer--Compositor."

(p) Miners should state the description of Mine in which they work. --Examples: "Coal Miner," "Iron Miner," Lead Miner," "Tin Miner," "Copper Miner," etc. The term Miner should never be used alone.

(q) Engineers: Civil Engineers and Mining Engineers to be so described. Workmen employed in works or factories are to be distinctly described. --Examples: "Engine Smith at Factory," "Engine Fitter at Works." Engine Drivers, Stokers, and Firemen to be described in connection with the manufactory, railway, steam-vessel, etc., in which they are employed. --Examples: "Railway Engine Driver," "Stoker in Cotton Factory," "Engineer" alone is not to be used.

(r) Artisans and Mechanics should invariably sate the particular branch of mechanical art or business in which they are employed. --Examples: "Model Maker--Engine," "Wire Worker--Telegraph."

(s) Weaver. --"Silk," "Wool," "Worsted," "Cotton," etc., should always be written before this general term, so as to express distinctly the material which he weaves; thus, "Silk Weaver."

(t) Domestic Servants should be described according to the nature of their service, adding in all cases "Domestic Servant." --Example: "Coachman-Domestic Servant;" "Gardener-Domestic Servant;" "Cook-Domestic Servant."

(u) Messengers, Porters, Laborers, to be described according to the nature of their employment. -- Examples: "Railway Porter," "Bricklayer's Laborer," "Laborer in Iron Works," "General Laborer." The term Laborer should never be used alone.

(v) Persons ordinarily engaged in some industry, but Out of Employment at the time of the Census, should be so described: as "Coal Miner, unemployed;" "Printer, unemployed."

(w) Persons following no profession, trade or calling, and holding no public office, but deriving their incomes chiefly from land, houses, dividends, interest of money, annuities, etc., may describe themselves accordingly. The indefinite terms Gentleman, Esquire, are not to be used. Persons who have retired from business to be entered thus--"Retired Farmer," "Retired Grocer."

(x) Women and children: The occupation of those who are regularly employed from home, or who follow any business at home, is to be distinctly recorded.
Rank, Profession, or Occupation? ____

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

Chapter 37: An Act for taking the Census of England.

[7th September 1880.]

Schedules shall be prepared by or under the direction 2 of the said Board for the purpose of being filled up by or on "behalf of the several occupiers of dwelling houses as hereinafter provided, with particulars of the name, sex, age, rank, profession or occupation, condition as to marriage, relation to head of family, and birth-place of every living person who abode in every house on the night of Sunday the third day of April one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, and also whether any were blind, or deaf and dumb, or imbecile or lunatic; and the registrars in England shall in the course of the week ending on Saturday the second day of April in the said year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one leave or cause to be left at every dwelling-house within their respective sub-districts one or more of the said schedules for the occupier or occupiers thereof or of any part thereof, and upon every such schedule shall be plainly expressed that it is to be filled up by the occupier of such dwelling-house, (or where such dwelling-house is let or sub-let in different stories or apartments, and occupied distinctly by different persons or families, by the occupier of each such distinct story or apartment,) and that the enumerator will collect all such schedules within his division on the Monday then next following.


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Great Britain 1881b — source variable GB1881B_0417 — HISCO occupation
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

To the Occupier

You are requested to insert the particulars specified on the other side, in compliance with an Act passed during the last Session of Parliament, and which received the Royal assent on the 7th September 1880

List of the members of this family, of visitors, of boarders, and of servants, who slept or abode in this dwelling on the night of Sunday, April 3rd, 1881

6. Rank, Profession, or Occupation.

A person following more distinct occupations than one, should insert each of them in order of their importance.

(a) The Titles of peers and other persons of rank to be inserted, as any important Office they may hold.

(b) Members of Parliament, Magistrates, Alderamen, and other important public Officers, to state their profession or occupation, if any, after their official rank or title.

(c) All persons serving in the Army and Navy, to state their rank and the branch to which they belong. Officers to state whether on the Active or Retired List; Chelsea, Greenwich, and other Pensioners, to be so designated.

(d) All persons in the Civil Service to state their rank, and the department or branch to which they belong; those retired or superannuated to be so designated.

(e) Ministers of religion: CLERGYMEN of the Church of England to return themselves as "Rector of --," Vicar of--," Curate of --," etc., or "without cure of souls." They are requested not to employ the indefinite term "Clerk." Roman Catholic Priests, and Ministers of Foreign Churches, to return themselves as such, and to state the name of the church or chapel, if any, in which they officiate. Dissenting Ministers to return themselves as "Independent Minister of -- Chapel," "Wesleyan Minister of -- Chapel," etc. Local or occasional preachers must return their ordinary occupations ; but may add "Local Methodist preacher," etc., etc.

(f) Legal Profession: Barristers to state whether or not they are in actual practice. The designation Solicitor to be confined to those whose names are actually on the Roll. Barristers' Clerks are so to return themselves. Clerks in Solicitors' Offices should state whether they are Solicitors Managing, Articled, or General Clerk. Officers of any Court to state the name of the Office, and the name of the Court.

(g) Members of the Medical Profession to state whether they practice as Physician, Surgeon, Dentist, Oculist, General Practitioner, Assistant, etc., or are "not practicing." They must also state the University or other Society of which they are Graduates, Fellows, or Licentiates.

(h) Professors, Teachers, Public Writers, Authors and Scientific MeN: to state the particular branch or Science or Literature which they follow; Artists, the art which they cultivate. Graduates should enter their degrees in this column.

(i) Students of Theology, Law, or Medicine, and Undergraduates of any University, to be so returned.

(j) Scholars: Children or young persons attending a School, or receiving regular instruction at home, to be returned as "Scholars".

(k) Farmers to state the number of acres occupied, and the number of men, women, and boys employed on the farm at the time of the Census. -- Example:"Farmer of 317 Acres, employing 8 Labourers and 3 Boys." Sons or Daughters employed at home or on the farm should be returned--"Farmer's Son," "Farmer's Daughter." Men employed on the farm and sleeping in the Farmer's house must be described in the schedule as Farm Servants.

(l) Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds, and other employed on Farms, but not living in the Farmer's house, must be described as Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds, etc.

(m) Persons engaged in commerce as Merchants, Brokers, Agents, etc., to state in all cases the particular branch of Commerce in which they are engaged or the staple in which they chiefly deal. -- Examples: "East India Merchant," "Member of -- Stock Exchange," "Cotton Broker." Commercial Clerk, Commercial Traveller, Shopman -- always to add in what branch of business.

(n) In trades, manufactures or other Business, Masters must, in all cases, be so designated.--Example: "Carpenter--Master, employing 6 men and 2 boys; inserting always the number of workpeople in their employ at the time of the Census. In the case of Firms, the number of persons employed should be returned by the senior or some one partner only.

(o) Workers in Manufactures, and generally in the Mechanical Arts, should distinctly state the particular Branch of Work, and the Material, if they are not implied in the names, as in Brass-founder, Silk-throwster. Where the trade is much sub-divided, both trade and branch are to be returned, thus -- "Watchmaker--Finisher;" "Printer--Compositor."

(p) Miners should state the description of Mine in which they work. --Examples: "Coal Miner," "Iron Miner," Lead Miner," "Tin Miner," "Copper Miner," etc. The term Miner should never be used alone.

(q) Engineers: Civil Engineers and Mining Engineers to be so described. Workmen employed in works or factories are to be distinctly described. --Examples: "Engine Smith at Factory," "Engine Fitter at Works." Engine Drivers, Stokers, and Firemen to be described in connection with the manufactory, railway, steam-vessel, etc., in which they are employed. --Examples: "Railway Engine Driver," "Stoker in Cotton Factory," "Engineer" alone is not to be used.

(r) Artisans and Mechanics should invariably sate the particular branch of mechanical art or business in which they are employed. --Examples: "Model Maker--Engine," "Wire Worker--Telegraph."

(s) Weaver. --"Silk," "Wool," "Worsted," "Cotton," etc., should always be written before this general term, so as to express distinctly the material which he weaves; thus, "Silk Weaver."

(t) Domestic Servants should be described according to the nature of their service, adding in all cases "Domestic Servant." --Example: "Coachman-Domestic Servant;" "Gardener-Domestic Servant;" "Cook-Domestic Servant."

(u) Messengers, Porters, Laborers, to be described according to the nature of their employment. -- Examples: "Railway Porter," "Bricklayer's Laborer," "Laborer in Iron Works," "General Laborer." The term Laborer should never be used alone.

(v) Persons ordinarily engaged in some industry, but Out of Employment at the time of the Census, should be so described: as "Coal Miner, unemployed;" "Printer, unemployed."

(w) Persons following no profession, trade or calling, and holding no public office, but deriving their incomes chiefly from land, houses, dividends, interest of money, annuities, etc., may describe themselves accordingly. The indefinite terms Gentleman, Esquire, are not to be used. Persons who have retired from business to be entered thus--"Retired Farmer," "Retired Grocer."

(x) Women and children: The occupation of those who are regularly employed from home, or who follow any business at home, is to be distinctly recorded.
Rank, Profession, or Occupation? ____

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

Chaprter 37: An Act for taking the Census of England.

[7th September 1880.]

Schedules shall be prepared by or under the direction 2 of the said Board for the purpose of being filled up by or on "behalf of the several occupiers of dwelling houses as hereinafter provided, with particulars of the name, sex, age, rank, profession or occupation, condition as to marriage, relation to head of family, and birth-place of every living person who abode in every house on the night of Sunday the third day of April one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, and also whether any were blind, or deaf and dumb, or imbecile or lunatic; and the registrars in England shall in the course of the week ending on Saturday the second day of April in the said year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one leave or cause to be left at every dwelling-house within their respective sub-districts one or more of the said schedules for the occupier or occupiers thereof or of any part thereof, and upon every such schedule shall be plainly expressed that it is to be filled up by the occupier of such dwelling-house, (or where such dwelling-house is let or sub-let in different stories or apartments, and occupied distinctly by different persons or families, by the occupier of each such distinct story or apartment,) and that the enumerator will collect all such schedules within his division on the Monday then next following.


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Great Britain 1891a — source variable GB1891A_0417 — Occupation HISCO

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Great Britain 1891b — source variable GB1891B_0417 — HISCO occupation
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To the occupier

With exception of the above compartments, this paper must, in compliance with the Act, be filled up by the occupier of person in charge of the dwelling.

If a house be let or sublet to separate persons or families each occupier must make a return for his portion of the house upon a separate schedule.

Before filling up the paper all the instructions printed in the heading and on the back of the schedule should be carefully read.

This paper will be called for on Monday, April 6th, by the appointed enumerator, and it is necessary that you should have the answers written in the proper columns early on the morning of that day in order that he may not be delayed. It will be his duty, under the Act, to complete the return if defective, and to correct it if erroneous. Any person authorized by you may write in the particulars if you are unable to do so yourself.

Person who refuse to give information or who willfully give false information as to any of the required particulars, are liable, on summary conviction before Justices, to a fine of five pounds.

The return is required to enable the Local Government Board to complete the Tenth Census. The facts will be published in General Abstracts only, and strict care will be taken that the returns are not used for the gratification of curiosity, or for other purposes than those of the census.

1. Name and surname

No persons absent on the night of Sunday, April 5th, to be entered here; except those who may be travelling or out at work during that night (and are not elsewhere returned), and who return home on Monday, April 6th.

Write after the name of the head of the family, the names of his wife, children, and other relatives, then visitors, boarders, and servants.

____ Name and surname

5. Profession or occupation
Before filling up columns 5, 6, 7, and 8, you are requested to read carefully the special instructions printed on the other side.

____ Profession and occupation

General instructions

1. The precise nature of the occupation must be inserted in column 5 in accordance with the Special Instructions given below.

2. A person following several distinct occupations must state each of them in the order of their importance.

3. Person who have retired for their profession, business, or occupation must state their former calling, with the addition of the word "retired" as "retired farmer", "retired grocer", "retired Blacksmith".

4. The occupations of women and children, if any, are to be stated as well as those of men.

5. A cross must be made in column 6, headed "employer" when the person is a master, employing under him workers in his trade or industry, in column 7, headed "employed", when the person is working in a trade or industry under a master, and in column 8, headed "neither "employer nor employed", when the persons neither employs other workmen in his trade or industry, nor works for a master, but works on his own account. Married women assisting their husbands in their trade or industry are returned as "employed".

These three columns, 6, 7, and 8, refer only to employment in trades and industries, and not to the employment of domestic servants.
Special instructions
1. Magistrates, members of parliament, and officials may state their official title, but must also state their profession or occupation, if they have any.

2. Persons serving in the army, the navy, or the civil service should state their grade and the branch of service to which they belong.

3. Clergyman of the Church of England should return themselves as clerk in Holy orders or as Rector, Vicar, Curate of ____, and should not use the indefinite term clerk without further specification. Priests and ministers of other religious communities must state to what community they belong - as "Roman Catholic Priest", "Wesleyan Minister". Local or occasional preachers must return their ordinary occupation, but may also add the fact of their being preachers.

4. Members of the legal profession should return themselves as barristers or solicitors, as the case may be. Law clerks should return themselves as barrister's clerk or solicitor's clerk. Articled clerks in solicitors' offices should be so described.

5. Members of the various branches of the medical profession should state whether they are duly registered Practitioners, and whether they practice as physician, surgeon, general practitioner, dentist, etc.

6. Professors, teachers, etc., should state the branch of science or art or knowledge which they follow. Artists also should state the art they cultivate.

7. Students of theology, law, medicine, or other branches of knowledge should return themselves as such.

8. Merchants, brokers, agents, etc., must state the particular branch of commerce in which they are engaged - as "East India Merchant", "stock broker", "cotton broker".

9. Sons or other relatives of farmers employed on the farm should be returned as "farmer's son", "farmer's brother", etc.

10. Agricultural Laborers, Shepherds, and others employed on farms must return themselves as such. The term "laborer" must not be used by itself to describe an "Agricultural Laborer". Men employed on farms and living in the farmer's house must return themselves as Farm Servants but this term should not be used for domestic servants in a farm house.

11. Shopmen and shop women should state in what branch of business they are employed - as, "draper's assistant", "milliner's shop woman".

12. Such terms as manager, foreman, superintendent should never be used without stating the special branch of trade in which the person is employed.

13. Domestic servants should state the nature of their service, adding in all cases "domestic servant". Examples "coachman - domestic servant"; "gardener - domestic servant", "cook - domestic servant".

14. The vague term "engineer", which might equally designate a civil engineer or and engine-driver, or an engine maker, is never to be used alone. Civil and mining engineers should describe themselves as such. Engine and machine makers should specify the precise branch of the trade in which they are employed - as, "steam-engine maker - fitter". engine drivers, stokers, firemen should state whether they drive or stoke railway engines, ship's engines, or stationary engines, or whether they are furnace stokers - as "stoker on steam ship", "railway engine driver", "gas stoker", "furnace stoker at potteries".

15. Artisans, mechanics, and workers in manufactories generally, should state distinctly not only the general name of the industry in which they are employed, but the particular branch of the industry in which they are engaged, and also the material in which they work, if it be not implied in the name, and if such name be common for several industries - as, "brass founder", "silk throwster", "watchmaker -finisher", "printer compositor". Such terms as founder, finisher, throwster, etc. common to many industries must not be used without more precise descriptions.

16. Weavers, spinners, etc., should invariably state the material in which they work - as, "Cotton-spinner", "Silk Weaver", etc.

17. Miners should always state the kind of mine in which they work - as, "coal miner", "lead miner". The term "miner" should never be used alone.

18. Laborers, porters should specify the nature of their employment - as, "railway porter", "agricultural laborer", "bricklayer's laborer", "laborer in ship yards", "general laborer". The term "laborer" should never be used alone.

19. Persons following no profession, trade, or calling, but deriving their income from land, houses, dividends, or other private sources, should return themselves as "living on their own means". Such indefinite terms as "Gentleman", "Esquire", etc., should not be used.

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Great Britain 1901a — source variable GB1901A_0417 — HISCO occupation
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6., 7., and 8. Profession or Occupation

State the occupation, if any, of each person (whether man, woman, or child). For those engaged in any trade or industry, state the particular brand, and also the material worked or dealt in.

The instructions on the back of the schedule must be carefully read before this column is filled up.

1. The precise nature of the occupation must be inserted in Column 6, in accordance with the instructions given below.

2. A person following more than one occupation should state each of them in the order of their importance. Magistrates, Members of Parliament, and Officials may state their official title, but should not omit to return their profession or ordinary occupation, if they have any.

3. Vague terms, such as Merchant, Broker, Agent, Manufacturer, Contractor, Manager, Superintendent, Forman, Dealer, Apprentice, Artisan, Mechanic, Machinist, Machine Worker, Factory Hand, Operative Laborer, etc., must not be used alone. Full and distinctive description of the occupation must be given.

4. Children attending school and also engaged in a trade or industry should be described as following the particular trade or industry.

5. The Occupiers' attention is called to the heading of Column 8, in which column the words "At Home" should be entered opposite the names of persons engaged in any trade or industry carried on at home.

6. The Army, Navy, and Civil Service - Persons in these services should state their rank or grad and the branch of the service to which they belong.

7. Clergymen of the Church of England should return themselves as such. Priests and Ministers of other religious communities should state to what community they belong - as "Roman Catholic Priest", "Wesleyan Minister". Local or occasional preachers should return their ordinary occupation, but may also add the fact of their being preachers. Clergymen who are also Schoolmasters should state the fact.

8. Legal Profession - Members of this profession should state whether they are Barristers, Solicitors, Articled Clerks, Barristers' Clerks, Solicitors' Clerks or Law Clerks.

9. Sons or other relatives of Farmers employed on the farm should be returned as "Farmer's Son", "Farmer's Brother", etc.

10. Agricultural Laborers should be entered according to the particular work on which they are usually engaged - such as "Shepherd", "Hind", "Carter on farm", "Horse Man on farm", "Horse Keeper on farm", "Teamster on farm", "Wagoner on farm", "Cattleman on farm", "Stockman on farm", "Yardman on farm", "Ordinary Agricultural Laborer", etc. The term "Laborer" must not be used by itself to describe an "Agricultural Laborer".

11. Shopkeepers and Shop-Assistants should return themselves as such and should also state their branch of business - as, "Grocer-Shop-Keeper", "Draper's Assistant", etc. Persons wholly or principally engaged in manufacture or repair - such as "Journeymen Bakers", "Tailors' Cutters", "Watchmakers", "Bootmakers" etc. - should return themselves as such and not as "Shopkeepers" or "Shop-Assistants".

12. Managers, Foremen, Superintendents, Over-Lookers, etc., should state the special branch of trade in which they are employed.

13. Nurses - The term "Nurse" by itself is too indefinite. The kind of nurse should be stated as "Hospital Nurse", "Sick Nurse", "Monthly Nurse", "Nurse (domestic)", etc.

14. Domestic Servants should be entered according to the nature of their service, adding in all cases "Domestic". Examples: "Coachman - Domestic:", "Gardener - Domestic:", "Cook - Domestic". Coachmen, Gardeners, etc., not in Domestic Service should describe themselves as "Coachman (not domestic)", "Market Gardener", etc.

15. Engineers should fully state the nature of their employment. Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, and Mining Engineers should describe themselves as such. Engine and Machine Makers should specify the precise branch of the trade in which they are employed - as "Steam-engine Maker - Fitter". Engine-Drivers, Stokers, Firemen, should state whether they drive or stoke Railway Engines, Ship Engines, or Stationary Engines, or whether they are Furnace Stokers - as "Stoker on Steam-ship", "Railway Engine-driver", "Gas Stoker", "Furnace Stoker at Potteries".

16. Artisans, Mechanics, and Workers in Manufactories should state not only the general name, but also the particular branch of the industry in which they are engaged, naming where possible, the material used or article made, thus - "Brass Founder", "Silk-throwster", "Watchmaker - Finisher", "Printer - Compositor". Such terms as Founder, Finisher, Printer, Throwster, Machinist, etc., must not be used alone. Sewing Machinists should name the article they machine - as, "Boot Machinist", "Shirt Machinist", etc.

17. Weavers, Spinners, Bleachers, Dyers, etc., should invariably state the material in which they work and the precise process in which they are engaged - such as, "Cotton-spinner", "Silk Weaver", "Cotton card-room hand", "Wool-winder", etc.

18. Miners and Quarrymen should always state the kind of mine or quarry in which they work, and the nature of their employment in or about the mine or quarry - as, "Coal-miner-Hewer", "Lead-miner", "Slate-quarryman". The term "Miner" or "Quarryman" should never be used alone.

19. Labourers, Porters, Carters, should specify the nature of their employment - as, "Railway Porter", "Navvy", "Bricklayer's Laborer", "Laborer in Ship Yards", "Railway Carter", "General Laborer". The term "Laborer", "Porter", etc., should never be used alone.

20. Retired - Persons who have retired from their profession or occupation should state their former calling. With the addition of the word "retired" - as. "Retired Farmer", "Retired Grocer", "Retired Blacksmith".

21. Living on Own Means - Persons neither following nor having retired from a profession of occupation, but deriving their income from private sources, should return themselves as "Living on own means". Such terms as "Gentleman", "Esquire", etc., must not be used.

____ Occupation


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Great Britain 1901b — source variable GB1901B_0417 — HISCO occupation
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5. Profession or occupation
State the occupation, if any, of each person (whether man, woman, or child). For those engaged in any trade or industry, state the particular brand, and also the material worked or dealt in.

The instructions on the back of the schedule must be carefully read before this column is filled up.

____ Occupation

1. The precise nature of the occupation must be inserted in column 5, in accordance with the instructions given below.
2. A person following more than one occupation should state each of them in the order of their importance. Magistrates, members of parliament, and officials may state their official title, but should not omit to return their profession or ordinary occupation, if they have any.
3. Vague terms, such as merchant, broker, agent, manufacturer, contractor, manager, superintendent, Forman, dealer, apprentice, artisan, mechanic, machinist, machine worker, factory hand, operative laborer, etc., must not be used alone. Full and distinctive description of the occupation must be given.
4. Children attending school and also engaged in a trade or industry should be described as following the particular trade or industry.
5. The occupiers' attention is called to the heading of column 7, in which column the words "at home" should be entered opposite the names of persons engaged in any trade or industry carried on at home.
6. The Army, navy, and civil service - persons in these services should state their rank or grad and the branch of the service to which they belong.
7. Ministers of religion- Clergymen of the Church of Scotland should return themselves as "Minister of ____ Pariah," "Assistant Minister of ___Parish," or "Minister of Established Church (no charge." Priests and Ministers of other religious communities should state to what community they belong - "Minister of ____United Free Church," "Minister of ____Independent Chapel" etc. Episcopalism Clergyman, Roman Catholic Priests, and Ministers of Foreign Churches to return themselves as such, and to state the name of the church or chapel, if any, in which they officiate. Local or occasional preachers should return their ordinary occupation, but may also add the fact of their being preachers.
8. Legal profession - members of this profession should state whether they are barristers, solicitors, articled clerks, barristers' clerks, solicitors' clerks or law clerks, etc. according to circumstances.
9. Members of various branches of the medical profession should state whether they are duly registered practitioners, and whether they practice as physician, surgeon, general practitioner, dentist, etc.
10. Professors, teachers, etc. should state the branch of science or art or knowledge which they follow. Artists also should state the art which they cultivate.
11. Students of theology, law, medicine, or other branches of knowledge should return themselves as such.
12. Scholars- children or young person's attending a school, or receiving regular instruction at home (and not engaged in a trade or industry), to be returned as "scholars".
13. Sons or other relatives of farmers employed on the farm should be returned as "farmer's son", "farmer's brother", etc.
14. Agricultural laborers should be entered according to the particular work on which they are usually engaged - such as "shepherd", "ploughman", "hind", "carter on farm", "horse keeper on farm", "cattleman on farm", "stockman on farm", "ordinary agricultural laborer", etc. the term "laborer" must not be used by itself to describe an "agricultural laborer".
15. Shopkeepers and shop-assistants should return themselves as such and should also state their branch of business - as, "grocer-shop-keeper", "draper's assistant", etc. persons wholly or principally engaged in manufacture or repair - such as "journeymen bakers", "tailors' cutters", "watchmakers", "bootmakers" etc. - should return themselves as such and not as "shopkeepers" or "shop-assistants".
16. Managers, foremen, superintendents, over-lookers, etc., should state the special branch of trade in which they are employed.
17. Nurses - the term "nurse" by itself is too indefinite. The kind of nurse should be stated as "hospital nurse", "sick nurse", "monthly nurse", "nurse (domestic)", etc.
18. Domestic servants should be entered according to the nature of their service, adding in all cases "domestic". Examples: "coachman - domestic:", "gardener - domestic:", "cook - domestic". coachmen, gardeners, etc., not in domestic service should describe themselves as "coachman (not domestic)", "market gardener", etc.
19. Engineers should fully state the nature of their employment. Civil, mechanical, electrical, and mining engineers should describe themselves as such. Engine and machine makers should specify the precise branch of the trade in which they are employed - as "steam-engine maker - fitter". engine-drivers, stokers, firemen, should state whether they drive or stoke railway engines, ship engines, or stationary engines, or whether they are furnace stokers - as "stoker on steam-ship", "railway engine-driver", "gas stoker", "furnace stoker at potteries".
20. Artisans, mechanics, and workers in manufactories should state not only the general name, but also the particular branch of the industry in which they are engaged, naming where possible, the material used or article made, thus - "brass founder", "silk-throwster", "and watchmaker - finisher "," printer compositor". Such terms as founder, finisher, printer, throwster, machinist, etc., must not be used alone. Sewing machinists should name the article they machine - as, "boot machinist", "shirt machinist", etc.
21. weavers, spinners, bleachers, dyers, etc., should invariably state the material in which they work and the precise process in which they are engaged - such as, "cotton-spinner", "silk weaver", "cotton card-room hand", "wool-winder", etc.
22. Miners and quarrymen should always state the kind of mine or quarry in which they work, and the nature of their employment in or about the mine or quarry - as, "coal-miner-hewer", "lead-miner", "slate-quarryman". The term "miner" or "quarryman" should never be used alone.
23. Laborers, porters, carters, should specify the nature of their employment - as, "railway porter", "navvy", "bricklayer's laborer", "laborer in ship yards", "railway carter", "and general laborer". The term "laborer", "porter", etc., should never be used alone.
24. Retired - persons who have retired from their profession or occupation should state their former calling. With the addition of the word "retired" - as. "Retired farmer", "retired grocer", "retired blacksmith".
25. living on own means - persons neither following nor having retired from a profession of occupation, but deriving their income from private sources, should return themselves as "living on own means". Such terms as "gentleman", "esquire", etc., must not be used.


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Great Britain 1911 — source variable GB1911A_0434 — HISCO
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

Profession or Occupation of Persons aged ten years and upwards

10. Personal Occupation.

The reply should show the precise branch of Profession, Trade, Manufacture, etc.
If engaged in any Trade of Manufacture, the particular kind of work done and the Article made or Material worked or dealt in should be clearly indicated.
(See Instructions 1 to 8 and Examples on back of Schedule)

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Iceland 1703 — source variable IS1703A_0419 — Occupation, HISCO classification

No questionnaire text is available for this sample.


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Iceland 1729 — source variable IS1729A_0412 — Occupation, HISCO

No questionnaire text is available for this sample.


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Iceland 1801 — source variable IS1801A_0405 — Primary occupation, HISCO classification
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

6. Occupation or industry: _____________________
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

The persons' title, office, business, crafts and trade, or what they live by must also appear, and so far they had handicaps or live by alms. [Especially, remark for cottars in the countryside whether they have any agricultural or other occupation. Moreover, when several families dwell in one house or farm, those living together in a family must be listed together].

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Iceland 1901 — source variable IS1901B_0440 — Primary occupation, HISCO
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

Column 11
Employment office, work, or trade: ___________
Also special employment pursued by the wife or children.
If anyone pursues work in more than one occupational sector, they shall all be listed with the principal occupational sector first. The occupational sector shall be stated clearly and the position of each person in this sector. (For example, freehold farmer, farm servant, fisherman, day labourer working stone, primary school teacher, apprentice at agricultural college, seamstress (not employed in a workshop owned by another person)). If any person lives primarily on his assets, support from individuals, [or] old-age or paupers' pension, then this shall be listed followed by his occupation. Persons who previously pursued an occupation or the like shall set former before the position they held. Servants who carry out work other than indoor tasks shall mention this specifically.
Cf. the instructions preceding Point 4.
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

The position or occupation of every individual etc. should be entered in the column Occupation. Both the industrial sector and the person's occupational status should be clearly indicated, e.g. operator of decked fishing vessels, (small boat) fisherman-farmer, foreman of fishing crew, fisherman, master carpenter, journeyman carpenter (not working in the workshop of another), labourer working stone, not only a day labourer, if a person pursues one task more than another etc.

In other respects reference is made to the heading of the column for persons who live mainly on their assets, from pensions and the like. Similarly, for those who previously pursued employment etc., the position they filled shall be listed preceded by "former", and then their current means of support. Similarly, information shall be provided for servants (see further column 12).


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Iceland 1910 — source variable IS1910A_0406 — First occupation HISCO

No questionnaire text is available for this sample.


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Mecklenburg 1819 — source variable MS1819A_0412 — Occupation
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

____ Social status and trade

____ Land and estate holdings

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

The lists were to constitute a "comprehensive register of every person living on the day of the census, as young or as old as they may be, of every gender, trade, or religion". Thus uniform characteristics were used. These are:

(7) Social status and trade, which includes social status, relation to the head of household, all occupations

(8) Land and estate holdings or property. For example, houses, dens, and farmland.


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Norway 1801 — source variable NO1801A_0414 — Occupation, HISCO code
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

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Norway 1865 — source variable NO1865A_0423 — Occupation, NAPP-modified HISCO code

No questionnaire text is available for this sample.


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Norway 1875 — source variable NO1875A_0425 — Occupation, NAPP-modified HISCO code
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

9. Occupation:

For persons over 15 years, occupation (trade) or provided for by whom? ____
For persons under 15 years, who had salaried work, specify what kind? ____


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Norway 1900 — source variable NO1900A_0434 — Occupation, NAPP-modified HISCO code
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

Occupation and (social) position:
Including Housewife's or children's specific occupation. Enter clearly and specifically which trade and business or branch which the person performs or works at, and also the position in this trade. If someone has several occupations enter these, the main occupation first.

____ Trade and business
____ Position
____ Comment

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

Field 9. The type of industry or occupation must be accurately specified. For grown children still at home and other relatives as well as for servants specify if they are occupied doing housework, agricultural work, cattle work or other types of work, specifying which. For widows and grown-up unmarried women must be specified if they live from own means or perform any industry, such as lodgings, sewing, trade etc, or if they have any specific occupation. For lodgers or visitors the occupation must also be included. For craftsmen and others running industries etc must be specified what kind of industry they run; for instance it is not sufficient to write craftsman, factory owner, factory manager etc, please specify shoemaker, tile works owner, sawmill manager etc. For secreataries, clerks, watchmen, engineers, coal shufflers etc must be specified in what kind of trade they are employed. For workers, lodgers and day labourers add the factory etc where they worked at census time or where they worked, e g in agriculture, saw mill, brewery etc.
Each occupation must be specified so that it is known if the person runs the institution etc as employer or commercially, as independent worker on own account or whether he works in the service of others as manager, foreman, journeyman, apprentice or worker. In the case of all such positions which might be both private and public, the character of the position must be noted (e g higher or medium civil servant in the service of the state or municipality, teacher at private school etc). Person living mainly from their fortune, pensions, life interests or public support should be thus characterized together with their occupation, if at all significant. Persons previously employed in private enterprise, as civil servants etc, get "fv." before their occupation.

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Norway 1910 — source variable NO1910A_0413 — HISCO occupation
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

9a. Occupation and position. Also the specific occupations of the housemother or children. Note accurately and specifically trade or discipline which the person performs or work in, so that this person's position in the occupation can be understood (e.g., tenant farmer, shoemaker apprentice, pulp mill worker). If someone has several occupations, note these, first the main occupation. (Cf also remark 7).
9b. If someone is unemployed on Census day, put the letter: "I".

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

7. Field 9. The type of industry or occupation must be accurately specified. For grown children still at home and other relatives as well as for servants specify if they are occupied doing housework, agricultural work, cattle work or other types of work, specifying which. For widows and grown-up unmarried women must be specified if they live from own means or perform any industry, such as lodgings, sewing, trading, etc., or if they have any specific occupation.
For lodgers or visitors the occupation must also be included. For craftsmen and others running industries, etc. must be specified what kind of industry they run; for instance it is not sufficient to write craftsman, factory owner, factory manager, etc., please specify shoemaker, tile works owner, sawmill manager etc.
For secretaries, clerks, watchmen, engineers, coal shufflers etc. must be specified in what kind of trade they are employed. For workers, lodgers and day labourers add the factory etc. where they worked at Census time or where they worked, e g in agriculture, saw mill, brewery etc.
Each occupation must be specified so that it is known if the person runs the institution etc. as employer or commercially, as independent worker on own account or whether he works in the service of others as manager, foreman, journeyman, apprentice or worker.
As unemployed ("I") are counted those who on Census day were without work (except due to illness, inability to work or work conflict), but who usually were employed at work or in some other subordinate position.
In the case of all such positions which might be both private and public, the character of the position must be noted (e.g., higher or medium civil servant in the service of the state or municipality, teacher at private school etc.). Person living mainly from their fortune, pensions, life interests or public support should be thus characterized together with their occupation, if at all significant.
Persons previously employed in private enterprise, as civil servants etc., get "fv." Put before their occupation.

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Sweden 1880 — source variable SE1880A_0448 — Occupation, NAPP-HISCO code
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

Enumeration form for the 1880 census
(all counties in Sweden, except for the cities Stockholm and Gothenburg)

Column 3
Occupation (office, service, trade) ____

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

Col. 3:That, if possible, an accurate and complete information should be provided about occupation, office, service or trade (for example farmer, tenant farmer, crofter, settler, shoemaker, tailor, shoemaker apprentice, tailor apprentice, domestic worker, servant, poor, vagrant, prisoner etcetera). An occupation should also be recorded for a woman if she exercises an occupation or a trade. If someone has more than one occupation they should all be recorded. The first occupation should be regarded as the main occupation. Also if a person formerly has had an occupation, but currently does not have an occupation, the former occupation may be recorded. An occupation can also be recorded, to ensure the possibility of future identification of a person, if the person is commonly called by the name of a profession. Similarly some titles can be recorded (for example farmer, former sergeant, landlord and chamberlain) while other titles that do not give information about service, occupation or trade are of no value for the listing of occupations.

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Sweden 1890 — source variable SE1890A_0470 — Occupation, NAPP-HISCO codes
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

____ Occupation (office, trade)

Column 3
____ Occupation (office, service, trade)

Column 3
____ Occupation (office, service, trade)

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

f. The enumeration form is divided into 14 columns with the following content:

Col. 3: That, if possible, an accurate and complete information should be provided about occupation, office, service or trade (for example landlord, farmer, tenant farmer, crofter, settler, saw mill owner, shoemaker, tailor, shoemaker apprentice, tailor apprentice, domestic worker, servant, poor, vagrant, prisoner etcetera). It should not only be written "worker" or "factory worker", instead additional information should be provided (for example: farm worker, saw mill worker, worker at N. N. match factory etcetera). An occupation should also be recorded for a woman if she exercises an occupation or a trade. If someone has more than one occupation they should all be recorded. The first occupation should be regarded as the main occupation. Also if a person formerly has had an occupation, but currently is without employment, the former occupation may be recorded. An occupation can also be recorded, to ensure the possibility of future identification of a person, if the person is commonly called by the name of a profession. Similarly some titles can be recorded (for example farmer and former sergeant, landlord and chamberlain) while other titles that do not give information about service, occupation or trade are of no value for the listing of occupations.


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Sweden 1900 — source variable SE1900A_0470 — Occupation, NAPP-HISCO codes
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

Column 2
____ Occupation (service, trade)
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

Column 2

1. Occupation (office or trade) should be recorded as accurately as possible, not only for a man but also for a woman who has or performs in a trade, office or occupation. It should not only be written worker, factory worker, journeyman, widow etcetera, but instead brick yard worker, journeyman tailor, textile mill worker, practicing copper smith etcetera. If someone has more than one occupation the main occupation is recorded. For every household head some manner of living should be recorded even if it is not a proper occupation. Examples can be pensioner, dependent tenant, pauper, asylum tenant etcetera.


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Sweden 1910 — source variable SE1910A_0448 — Occupation, HISCO
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

Enumeration form for the 1910 census (all counties except the city of Stockholm)

Column 2
____ Occupation and the number of the written occupation statement
____ Ethnicity (mention if foreign ethnicity)
____ Disability (epilepsy, mentally ill, idiot, blind, deaf-mute)

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

Instructions for filling out the enumeration forms
(Compare the following instructions with the attached example form)
On filling out the form for extracts from the parish book the following rules should be followed.

Column 2

a. As occupation should be recorded the office or trade from which the person earns his living. Titles such as “master in law with court training”, “doctor of philosophy”, “juryman”, “miss”, “dowager” may not be recorded as occupations. Occupation should be recorded as accurately as possible in order to explain from what work the person gets his livelihood. Such designations as “director”, “factory owner”, “engineer”, “craftsman”, “bookkeeper”, “machine operator”, “stoker”, “worker” should not be used without stating in what trade or in which company the person is occupied, instead occupation should be given as: “director of a joint stock company”, “tobacco factory owner”, “master painter”, “merchant bookkeeper”, “machine operator at a public bath”, “match factory worker”. The occupation statement should also describe if the person is self employed or works as an employee. In the latter case designations such as “carpenter”, “tin-smith” should be replaced by “carpenter journeyman”, “tin-smith worker” etcetera - If someone has more than one occupation the main occupation is recorded – For a person who temporarily is out of work his latest occupation should be recorded – For a person who no longer works the former trade or office should be recorded with the addition of the letters “f. d.” (“former”), for example “former captain in the royal navy”, “former master shoemaker”- For a widow who don’t have an occupation of her own the occupation of her deceased husband should be recorded, for example “shopkeeper widow” – A person who gets most of his subsistence from the relief of the poor should be designated as “pauper” – Occupations should be recorded also for wives and for other members of the household if they have an occupation, office or trade. For a person who has given a written statement about occupation, as described in the royal decrees of the 10th of June and the 30th of September, should in this column alongside the occupation designation also the number of the written occupation statement be recorded.


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United States 1880a — source variable US1880A_0467 — Occupation, HISCO classification
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

13. ____ Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male or female
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

OCCUPATION
In the column numbered 13 is to be reported the occupation of each person 10 years of age and upward.

Occupation.--The inquiry "profession, occupation, or trade," is one of the most important questions of the schedule. Make a study of it. Take especial pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation.

Call no man a "factory hand," or a "mill operative." State the kind of a mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "Works in a cotton mill," "Works in paper mill," etc. Do not call a man a "shoemaker," "bootmaker," unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot or shoe factory, say so.
Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments.

Call no man a "commissioner," a "collector," an "agent," an "artist," an "overseer," a "professor," a "treasurer," a "contractor," or a "speculator," without further explanation.
When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as "apprenticed to carpenter," "apothecary's apprentice." Students or scholars should be reported under those names.

When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say "retired lawyer," "retired merchant," etc. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents. When clerks are returned, describe them as "clerk in store," "clerk in woolen mill," "R.R. clerk," "bank clerk," etc.

Describe no man as a "mechanic," if it is possible to describe him more accurately.
Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.

Do not call a bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term "manufacturer" for proprietors of establishments; always give the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, woolen manufacturer, etc.

Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer," it should be done. Otherwise say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, etc.

Use the word "huckster" in all cases where it applies.

Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points to which the enumerator should especially direct his attention.

Confine the use of the words "glover," "hatter," and "furrier," to those who actual make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer," "hat and cap dealer," "fur dealer."

Judges (state whether Federal or state, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, if they have any, as "retired" merchant, governor of Massachusetts," "paper manufacturer, representative in legislature." If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office and put in the occupation.

The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worth while to make distinctions in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants."

Cooks, waiters, etc., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants, as "cook in hotel," etc.

The term "housekeeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as "keeping house." Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.

You are under no obligation to give any man's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what it is, find out what he does and characterize his profession accordingly.

The inquiry as to occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. "At home" or "attending school" will be the best entry in a majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, or earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated.