|United States 1850a|
|United States 1850b|
|United States 1860|
|United States 1870|
|United States 1880a|
|United States 1880b|
|United States 1900|
|United States 1910|
In the case of women, unless they have a definite occupation besides their share in the work of the family or household the column is to be filled with the sign "--"; as also in the case of children. If they have a special occupation, such as seamstress, clerk, factory hand, and c., then that fact should be entered accordingly.
Discrepancies in former census-takings as regards statistics of occupation have arisen from the lack of full description. Indefinite terms have been used, which the Department has.
been unable properly to classify, owing to the absence of full particulars. As each occupation must have a fully descriptive designation it is the enumerator's fault if that designation is not found out and written at length upon the schedule. You cannot be too explicit in stating occupations. As a general rule, in each case you can give:
Thirty years ago a shoemaker made a whole shoe, and a tailor made a whole suit of clothes; at the present time, owing to the sub-division of labour, few workmen begin and complete any article of manufacture. In very branch of work the specialist has succeeded the general worker, and statistics of occupation at the present day must possess the most specific detail or they will not satisfy the demands of the inquirer. To secure that specific detail we supply, for your information and guidance, the following:
104. Income. For every person who does not follow a specific occupation but has an independent income, as from investments, pensions, superannuation, etc., the fact should be noted by writing the word 'income' in column 17; and the entry 'none' should be made for all persons ten years old and over who follow no occupation and who do not live on income.
105. Persons retired. Persons who on account of old age, permanent physical disability or otherwise are no longer following a gainful occupation should not be reported as of the occupation formerly followed. If living on their own income the entry should be 'income,' but if they are supported gratuitously by other persons or institutions the entry in this column should be 'none.'
106. Exceptions. Farmers or business men who have retired from active service but who still control an interest in the farm or enterprise in which formerly engaged are to be returned as under the name of the occupation, business or trade from which their living is obtained and the entry will be made thus: 'Farmer r.' for farmer retired, and 'Grocer r.' for grocer retired, or as the case may be.
107. Persons temporarily unemployed. Persons who are out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the occupation followed by the person when employed should be obtained and recorded.
108. Farm workers. A person in charge of a farm should be returned as a farmer, whether he owns it or operates it as a tenant, renter or cropper; but a person who manages a farm for someone else for wages or salary should be reported as farm manager or farm overseer; and a person who works on a farm for someone else, but not as manager, tenant or cropper, should be reported as farm labourer.
109. Women doing housework. In the case of woman doing housework in her own home, without salary or wages, and having no other employment, the entry in column 17 should be 'none.' But a woman working at housework for wages should be returned in column 17 as housekeeper, servant, cook, chambermaid, etc., as the case may be; and the entry in column 22 should state the kind of place where she works, as private family, hotel, or boarding house. Or if a woman, in addition to doing housework in her own home, regularly earns money by some other occupation, whether pursued in her own home or outside, the kind of occupation should be stated in column 17 and the place where employed in column 22. For instance, a woman who regularly takes in washing should be reported as laundress or washerwoman in column 17, and the entry 'at home'' should be made in column 22.
110. Children working for parents. Children of ten years of age and over who work for their parents at home at general household work, or on the farm, or at any other work or chores, when attending school, should not be recorded as having an occupation. Those, however, who spend the major portion of their time at home, and who materially assist their parents in .the performance of work other than household duties, should be reported as of the occupation in which their time is employed.
111. General or indefinite terms not to be used. The kind or class of occupation must be stated precisely in column 17, and the place where the person is employed, as 'farm,' 'woolen factory,' 'cotton factory,' 'mine,' etc., will be carefully recorded in column 22. The occupation or trade of any person should not be described in column 17 by such indefinite terms as 'manufacturer,' 'merchant,' 'cotton mill employee,' 'labourer' 'miner,' 'manager,' etc. A worker in a mine may be described in column 17 by his precise designation as miner, labourer, driver, foreman, driller, etc., but unless the kind or class of mine in which he operates is stated in column 22 the record will be useless for compilation into statistical tables. See Sample Schedule.
112. Mechanic. The word 'mechanic' should be avoided in all cases, and the exact occupation given, as carpenter, blacksmith, painter, etc. Generally the term means one who has the art of using tools in shaping wood, metal, etc., as a handicraftsman or artisan; but this is not the sense in which it is to be understood in taking a census of the trade or occupation of the people. Specify the trade by its particular name in common use.
113. Agent. The different kinds of 'agents' should be carefully distinguished by stating in column 22 the line of business followed. See Sample Schedule.
114. Retail or wholesale merchants. The enumerator will distinguish carefully between retail and wholesale merchants; the kind or class will be entered in column 17 as retail or wholesale, and the kind of business, as dry goods, groceries, hardware, etc., will be entered in column 22.
115. Clerk. The use of the word 'clerk' should be avoided whenever a more definite occupation can be named. Thus a person in a store who is engaged in selling goods should be recorded as a 'salesman' or a 'saleswoman.' A stenographer, typewriter, accountant, bookkeeper, cashier, etc., should be reported as such, and not as clerk.
116. Illustrations of occupations. The following examples will illustrate the method of returning some of the common occupations (column 17) and places of employment or industry (column 22); these will also suggest to enumerators the distinctions which they are to make in the nearly two thousand other classes of occupation:
120. Domestic gainful and non-gainful occupations. If married women or other female dependents or children of ten years or over carry on a gainful or wage-earning occupation in any capacity, the kind of· occupation will be given, and they will be classed as employers or employees as the case may be; but if they are only carrying on domestic affairs in a household without wages they are not to be classed as having any occupation.
121. Piece-work at home. A person doing piece-work at home will be entered in column 17 according to the occupation, whether employed under contract or agreement with a manufacturer or other employer of labour or as help to the person so employed, and will be classed in column 20 as an employee.
No questionnaire text is available for this sample.
Occupation.--The inquiry "profession, occupation, or trade," is one of the most important questions of the schedule. Make a study of it. Take especial pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation.
Call no man a "factory hand", or a "mill operative". State the kind of a mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "Works in a cotton mill", "Works in paper mill", etc. Do not call a man a "shoemaker" or "boot maker", unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot or shoe factory, say so.
Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments.
Call no man a "commissioner", a "collector", an "agent", an "artist", an "overseer", a "professor", a "treasurer", a "contractor", or a "speculator" without further explanation.
When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as "apprenticed to carpenter", "apothecary's apprentice". Students or scholars should be reported under those names.
When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say "retired lawyer", "retired merchant", etc. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents. When clerks are returned, describe them as "clerk in store", "clerk in woolen mill", "R.R. clerk", "bank clerk", etc.
Describe no man as a "mechanic", if it is possible to describe him more accurately.
Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.
Do not call a bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term "manufacturer" for proprietors of establishments; always give the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, woolen manufacturer, etc.
Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer", it should be done. Otherwise say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, etc.
Use the word "huckster" in all cases where it applies.
Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points to which the enumerator should especially direct his attention.
Confine the use of the words "glover", "hatter", and "furrier" to those who actual make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer", "hat and cap dealer", "fur dealer".
Judges (state whether Federal or state, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, if they have any, as "retired" merchant, governor of Massachusetts", "paper manufacturer, representative in legislature". If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office and put in the occupation.
The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worth while to make distinctions in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants".
Cooks, waiters, etc., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants, as "cook in hotel", etc.
The term "housekeeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as "keeping house". Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.
You are under no obligation to give any man's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what it is, find out what he does and characterize his profession accordingly.
The inquiry as to occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. "At home" or "attending school" will be the best entry in a majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, or earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated