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Father's mother tongue

Codes and Frequencies

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FMTONGUE reports the mother tongue of the respondent's father, if the respondent's father was foreign-born. Mother tongue means the primary language the person spoke at home in the home country (not in the United States). The other language variables in NAPP include, MTONGUE, MMTONGUE, and LANGUAGE.


Father's mother tongue is only available for United States 1910. In 1910, some enumerators entered countries instead of mother tongues. In cases where the country entered was home to only one major language, the 1910 sample creators entered that language as the father's mother tongue. In other cases, they checked the person's response for "language spoken." If this was a non-English language and was known to be spoken in the country entered under father's mother tongue, mother's mother tongue was coded the same as "language spoken." Otherwise, father's mother tongue was coded "unknown."


  • United States 1910: Persons with foreign-born fathers


  • United States: 1910