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Census 1910 - Instructions and Questionnaires

Memo no. 2

1. The delimiting of wards and hiring of Census takers
2. The layout of the forms. Their completion and submission and the filling in of main lists for the wards.
3. Subsequent Census work

5. Remarks on the completion of the form above

Excerpt from the Instructions for Census takers (in rural areas) [in towns]

1. Preparatory work
2. Taking the Census
3. Post Census work

Memo no. 4

Information concerning procedures etc., for the Census taken December 1st, 1910, memos etc.
The Census of 1910 is the 13th in the series of ordinary Censuses taken in Norway. Detailed procedures etc., used in the previous Censuses were published in 1882 (pp 205ff) by the Statistical Bureau's "Bidrag til en norsk befolkningsstatik" (NOS C No1). Similar information on this Census can be found in printed volumes with statistical results from the 1891 Census (NOS III, No 284 pp 123 ff) and the Census taken 3 December 1900 (N. Off. St. III 284 og V. 4).
Since the present Census mainly is compatible with the previous with respect to the procedures of enumeration, we shall here give a brief description of differences. No agricultural enumeration was included in 1910, but the information for the handicraft enumeration was collected jointly with the Census.

An enumeration of sailors aboard Norwegian ships bound for or in Norwegian harbours at Census time was taken, but that of crews on Norwegian vessels in foreign harbours carried out in 1891 and 1900, was dropped in 1910, thus changing the scope of the Census somewhat. The layout and contents of the forms were not very different from those used in 1900 (cf appendix a-n). However, the questions about domiciles were extended in 1910, and as new were introduced questions about returned Norwegian-Americans and the unemployed, the latter has not been aggregated.

The 1910 Census procedures were more or less identical to those used in 1900. The mayor chaired the rural Census board together with two local assembly members. In the towns the Census was managed by the magistrate. As previously, rural municipalities and towns were split into census tracts, and primarily school teachers were Census takers.
There were 5016 rural and 767 urban Census takers (in 1891, 4833 and 1118 [respectively]).

In 1910 the budget for the Census taking was arranged as follows: The municipalities were offered to carry out the Census by being paid 4 to 10 are per inhabitant in the rural and 4 to 5 are in the urban municipalities (cf memo # 5 and 6, appendix a).
According to the abovementioned decree, the payment to Census takers and boards was set in correspondence with detailed suggestion from the Bureau approved by the ministry. In the towns the Census takers - where relevant - received a wage of up to Nkr 4.00 per day or Nkr 0.50 per hour, in exceptional cases increased somewhat. The magistrates were refunded their expenses for auxiliary employees etc.

The total expenses for the towns, rural municipalities, [and] the Nation
Refunding magistrates' expenses: Nkr 9,633
Mayors: 37,169 37,169
Census takers: 24,263 90,230 114,493

Preliminary Census counts were ready by January 18 1911, as communicated to the Bureau by telegraph or phone. The pamphlet Preliminary Results from the Census in Norway December 1 1910 was published on January 20.
The provisional Census office was active from November 1910 until September 1913, In this office were employed at most 50 persons not counting those working on the enumeration of handicrafts who 6 persons.
Also now the electric Hollerith machines were used, however newer model than in 1900, although the principles behind the machines were the same and will not be described here.
The following aggregates were compiled by manual sorting of special forms which were filled in for this purpose: The Sami, the Fins, returned Norwegian-Americans, the blind, the deaf, the mentally ill and the imbecile.

A total of Nkr 318,000 was granted to the carrying out of the Census. (Cf Storthings.-Forhandlinger prp. # 1, main item VII, page 7.) In addition Nkr 4,000 were granted for the preparation of the abovementioned taxation statistics. Thus, the expenses for the Census were distributed over several different tasks.

The grant was spent this way:

1. Expenses to prepare the Census: Nkr 13,261.24
2. Expenses taking the Census: Nkr 161,295.48
3. Preparations of results: Nkr 111,019.46
4. Printing of tables: Nkr 16,954.68
5. Other expenses: Nkr 19,469.14

Total: Nkr 322,000.00

Appendix a.
The Statistical Bureau. Census December 1, 1910.

Memo no. 2

1. That an ordinary Census will be taken the next December, starting on Thursday December 1st and to be continued during the next weekdays until its completion.

2. That together with this Census information on handicrafts will be assembled.

3. That the census in rural districts will be directed by the mayor of the municipality as chairman and well two members of the local assembly, and carried out with the assistance of persons found competent by the census board.

4. That the Census in the cities and minor towns should be directed by the magistrate and taken by persons found competent by the magistrate.

5. That customs officers take a Census of sailors aboard Norwegian vessels, which at Census time are in Norwegian harbours, including the crews on foreign vessels present in the Nation's waters.

6. That the Census tabulations should be communicated in accordance with the included forms 1-5 and the handicraft forms A and B.

7. That the filled in forms should be sent to the Statistical Central Bureau as soon as the Census taking is ended and at the latest by the end of January 1911.

8. That the Statistical Central Bureau is authorized to put into effect the necessary further measures, including decisions on minor changes in the layout of the questionnaires, and the economic compensation to Census takers and others.

In accordance with this authorization we declare:
The mayor should as soon as possible after receiving this memo appoint the two (or more) members of the local assembly, who together with the mayor make up the Census board, and settle a meeting in order to make an agreement about the preparations necessary in this matter.
The plan for the Census in the rural districts is briefly this:

1. The municipality is divided into clearly delimited Census wards; for each a Census taker is hired.

2. The collection of the basic information starts on Thursday morning December 1, 1910 and is completed as soon as possible. The forms (for the Census and the handicraft enumeration) are filled in and collected by the Census takers according to instructions.

3. As soon as these basic data is collected, the Census taker creates an aggregate ward main list (form 3) providing the population size in his ward. In this ward list, where the inhabited houses are listed with their Census house list number and property number, should also include the property number for uninhabited houses in the ward. Then all forms are sent to the Census board for summary verification, and they send in all the information together with an aggregate municipality municipality main list (form 4) to the Statistical Central Bureau.

Further guidelines:
Important differences for the urban Census is included in the rural instructions and put in brackets {} on the basis of separate instructions dispatched to the towns.

1. The delimiting of wards and hiring of Census takers
The municipality {town} boundaries are defined according to the jurisdiction of December 1, 1910. When dividing the municipality into wards, the speedy and rational taking of the Census should be born in mind. Presumably, the school districts will provide a convenient basis. However, some school districts had better be split into two or more wards -- e.g., when in such smaller wards, Census takers living closer can be hired.
{The enumeration of persons on board ships in the town's harbour will be performed by customs officers, who will receive the special memo about this from the Bureau, cf the decree's point 5.}

In order to provide information on the relative location of the wards and their approximate borders, the Census board should also send in a draft map, showing how the municipality is divided into wards, giving their numbers and approximate location.
As Census takers should be selected men or women whom the Census board {the magistrate} find most competent for the enumeration work, ordinarily teachers in elementary school. Qualities to be stressed when selecting Census takers are practical understanding of the questions on the forms, accuracy, knowledge of local conditions in the ward, and also that the taker writes clearly and rather quickly, and is able to complete the Census work speedily.
The Census board must give their Census takers necessary guidance both with respect to the rational taking of the census and the contents of the questionnaires.

2. Other preparatory measures concerning the Census

1. For all municipalities in the provinces from Smålenene (Østfold) to and including Troms we include 4 copies of the printed farm tax list. By splitting these by page, the Census board can give the Census takers the part relevant for each ward. If some of the places belong to another municipality, we ask that a couple of copies of this page be sent to the Census board there.
Since some changes in property ownership have happened after the farm tax lists were printed, we provide a bound copy with correction sent to the Ministry of finances by the local judges until the date given, and we ask that the other tax list copies are corrected accordingly at the discretion of the Census board. With the exception of a few municipalities the farm tax lists is updated by July 1 1910 -- this is noted in the introduction to each copy. Census takes should be warned about any later farm splits etc., but it is up to the Census board to make the updates to the lists which are necessary for the Census takers to perform their work. We ask that in the bound copy, which is to be shipped back to us, it is noted which farm parts are uninhabited, as well as which properties have been transferred to another municipality or town.
{Before distribution the magistrate should provide the urban house lists and person lists with the ward number, street name and property number. The house lists must be numbered sequentially within each ward. Check accurately that no property number is passed over. However, it is not necessary to number the house lists in the same sequence as the property numbers.}

2. For the province of Finnmark [where the state owned all land] we have sent to the bailiffs Letter no. 1, dated the 1st of this month, the lists of the assessed properties in the rural districts according to the agricultural Census of 1907, asking that they add later property splits or other changes. The updated lists must be sent to the mayors by early November. The relevant pages are to be shared between the Census takers. Subsequently the lists must be returned to us.
Since the attainment of complete and precise results is especially crucial in a Census, it is important that it is supported by the population. Thus the Census board should see to that the census is made known among the population in the municipality, and awake the common interest.

More detailed actions to this end must be decided by the Census board, so we only provide some suggestions. We ask that the vicar find occasion to announce the Census after Service on Sunday November 27. If possible, the editors of local newspapers should be asked to recommend the commoners to participate in the Census. The Central Statistical Agency will in due time advertise the Census in the most widely read local newspapers.
{The urban Census takers should distribute the forms a few days before Census day, asking the house owners and people renting flats to complete them, so that they are ready for picking up by December 1st. Then the Census takers must check on location to see that they have been properly filled in, and otherwise complete or correct them. The collection of the forms must be done as quickly as possible while considering the completeness of the information, because persons changing their domicile can affect the accuracy of the Census.}

Forms 1 and the handicrafts form (form 2 in the towns) have been sent from the Bureau to the Census boards, and should be distributed to the Census takers according to the number of domiciles and independent craftsmen in each ward. {The Census takers should find out about this when distributing the forms.} However, each Census taker should get more copies than needed. The census board should keep some copies for extra supply where needed.

In municipalities where the population's ethnicity is partly Sami, Finnish or mixed, we supply a special form I with 16 fields (the form's page 3) which should be used in the Tromsø Diocese. We also send a number of these forms to Census boards in southern municipalities where there are persons belonging to these ethnic groups, in addition to the ordinary form 1 with 14 fields.
If the number of forms provided is too little, we ask that the Bureau is informed immediately about the number of extra forms needed.

3. The layout of the forms. Their completion and submission and the filling in of main lists for the wards.
Please confer the remarks on the forms, as well as the detailed instructions for Census takers provided in this shipment.
{Form 1 (Family list) should be distributed to each flat, and should list the number of persons belonging to each household.
Form 2 (House list) comprises one house, as each property number is thus defined, so that back and side buildings etc. are included in the same house list, cf the form's first page}.

4. Subsequent Census work
As soon as the Census takers have delivered all completed forms to the mayor {the magistrate}, he should check them to the extent he finds necessary to make sure that the lists have been properly completed. He should check summarily that no inhabited places are left out. Next he should check whether the forms give the general impression that they have been correctly filled in. The main revision of the lists will be done in the Central Statistical Bureau.
Next the mayor {the magistrate} provides a main summary for the whole municipality {town} (form 4), where he also specifies the administrative divisions etc. If there is a special "chapter district" [small ecclesiastical division] with specific borders inside any parish, we ask that this district's population size be reported in the main summary, also referring to the relevant wards and person lists (form 1).
 If any part of the municipality is to be transferred to another administrative entity from January 1, 1911, please mark the relevant wards and person lists in the main summary.
When all records on the population size have been provided and controlled, they should be given to the whole Census board for inspection, and next the board's chairman should send them to the Statistical Central Bureau. Forms not used should be returned under separate cover.
Packages weighing over 3 kilos cannot be sent free of charge, the postage will be refunded by the Bureau.
A preliminary statement on the size of the de jure population must be reported as soon as possible to the Census office. Where possible, use telegraph or telephone. The Census office has phone number 14340, manned from 10-2 o'clock.

5. Census expenses
The Bureau has been authorized by the authorities to enter into agreements with each rural and urban municipality about paying the municipality a certain amount for the execution of the enumeration. The Census board should then distribute this amount among the Census takes and other who worked on the Census.
Accordingly, the bureau will shortly offer the individual Census boards an amount which it willing to pay for the Census, either a number of are per inhabitant, or a certain sum computed on the basis of the expenses during the previous Census.
The proposal from the Bureau will attempt to compute the compensation so that each municipality can assume responsibility for the Census without risks, and we shall pay to the municipalities a relatively equal amount, according to current local conditions. It is noted that the Census work will be less extensive than in 1900, since there will be taken no information about seeding and animal husbandry etc., although there will be collected special information about independent artisans.
This agreement will benefit the Census takers by giving them compensation relatively soon, during one of the first months next year or even earlier, when the lists have been returned to the Bureau and found satisfactory. If no such agreement can be reached, the Census takers must wait a long time until all enumerators bills have been studied and compared across municipalities, which will be time consuming for the Bureau. Any municipality not willing to reach such an agreement will have to relate to the cumbersome methods for the computing of expenses used during earlier Censuses.
In this case the Census board must suggest compensations based on each enumerator's expenses for transportation, the number of days spent taking the Census and other contingencies. The mayor must sign any claim a Census taker has to be compensated for individual transport [by carriage] and verify the distance travelled.
The mayors will be compensated for travels incurred due to the Census including transport and per diem as well as for their extra work (related to the printed farm tax lists, revising the household forms, filling the main forms). However, the administration of the Census in a limited sense (hiring of Census takers, etc.) will as previously practiced not be compensated according to the Census budget. Also other members of the Census boards will be compensated for their travels.
Finally, note that the urban Censuses will be administered by the relevant magistrate as previously. Notification that this letter and the accompanying forms have been received should be provided by the first mail.

Kristiania, October 10 1910

Jonas Haanshus
Attachments (in addition to the above-mentioned copy of the farm tax lists):
Form 1 (100 in each parcel) {Form 2 (likewise)}
Form 3
Form 4
Form A and B for the handicraft Census
Instructions for the Census takers
If any of these forms, etc. have not arrived together with this note, they will arrive with one of the next postal shipments.
Form 1, the list of persons had a format 51 x 30 centimeters. The form was split in three parts to be folded, so there were 6 pages, each page 17 cm wide.

[Pages 1-6: Questions about the domicile/flat, house list with the number of people by December 1st, 1910, summary of the list on the previous pages and supplementary questions about the domicile etc., are shown in the enumeration instruction.]

5. Remarks on the completion of form 1 above
1. In form 1 all persons are included who were in the house during the night between November 30 and December 2; travellers are also included; as well as persons provisionally absent (specifically marked in fields 4, for travellers or absent persons also in fields 5 or 6). Children born before 12 o'clock in the night are included. Persons who died before this moment are not included; they are included, however, if they died between this moment and the picking up of the Census forms.

2. If in any place there are more than one inhabited house, (cf the first page of form 1, item 2) this is noted in field 2, right above the name of the first person who lived in each house Also specify the name or type of the house (such as main building, side building, retired parents' house etc.).

3. For each house each family household is noted with its number. After the persons belonging to this, the single lodgers are included, and they are marked with an "X" to signify that they do not belong to the family household. Lodgers eating dinner at the family table are included in the family household; other lodgers, however, are marked as single. If two siblings or others keep house together, they are considered to be a family household. If any family member or any servant live in a separate house (e.g., the servants building), the number of the household they belong to is noted within parentheses (e.g., household no 1).
These rules are also applied to group quarters (e.g., hospitals, pauper houses, prisons, etc.) The quarter's administrative and other staff is included first, and next the inmates. The type of group quarter must be specified.

4. Field 4. Persons who lived permanently in the house and were present on December 1st, are marked with the letter "b"; those who were travellers or occasional visitors in the house on December 1st are marked with the letters "mt"; those who lived permanently in the house but absent travelling or visiting, are marked with "f". Sailors or others who are absent abroad, are listed with the family to which they belong as wife, children or siblings. If the person abroad has lived there for more than one year, make a note about this.

5. Field 7. For the occasional visitors their relationship to the family of the Census place is first noted, then their family relationship at home.

6. Field 8. Unmarried are marked "ug", married "g", widow(er)s "e", separated "s" and divorcees "f". As separated only those are included who have received separation papers, and as divorced only those whose marriage has been ultimately dissolved through court order or administratively.

7. Field 9. The type of industry or occupation must be accurately specified. For grown children still at home and other relatives as well as for servants specify if they are occupied doing housework, agricultural work, cattle work or other types of work, specifying which. For widows and grown-up unmarried women must be specified if they live from own means or perform any industry, such as lodgings, sewing, trading, etc., or if they have any specific occupation.
For lodgers or visitors the occupation must also be included. For craftsmen and others running industries, etc. must be specified what kind of industry they run; for instance it is not sufficient to write craftsman, factory owner, factory manager, etc., please specify shoemaker, tile works owner, sawmill manager etc.
For secretaries, clerks, watchmen, engineers, coal shufflers etc. must be specified in what kind of trade they are employed. For workers, lodgers and day labourers add the factory etc. where they worked at Census time or where they worked, e g in agriculture, saw mill, brewery etc.
Each occupation must be specified so that it is known if the person runs the institution etc. as employer or commercially, as independent worker on own account or whether he works in the service of others as manager, foreman, journeyman, apprentice or worker.
As unemployed ("I") are counted those who on Census day were without work (except due to illness, inability to work or work conflict), but who usually were employed at work or in some other subordinate position.
In the case of all such positions which might be both private and public, the character of the position must be noted (e.g., higher or medium civil servant in the service of the state or municipality, teacher at private school etc.). Person living mainly from their fortune, pensions, life interests or public support should be thus characterized together with their occupation, if at all significant.
Persons previously employed in private enterprise, as civil servants etc., get "fv." Put before their occupation.

8. Field 14. Slow-witted persons must not be counted as imbecile. As blind include those who do not have ambulatory vision.

Appendix c.
(1st page)

Census for Norway
1st December 1910
[The National Coat of Arms]
Form 3: Ward list
Population numbers in:
Ward no ________
Situated in ________________ municipality
___________________ parish ___________ (Fill in the name of the ward.)

If occasionally a ward includes parts of different parishes, legal districts or police districts, a main list should be made for each of these parts. These specific lists retain the number of the ward, but are given different letters.

(2nd and 3rd page)
Sequential summary of the person lists: