Manual Containing "The Census Act" and the Instructions to Officers Employed in the Taking of the Third Census of Canada
Ottawa: Printed by Brown Chamberlin, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
A census is taken for the purpose of ascertaining, as exactly as possible, the population and resources of a country, thereby furnishing an approximately correct idea of its relative position among nations and affording legislators the information: upon which they can legislate with accuracy.
A census is not taken for the purpose of taxation, as many persons formerly imagined. No information contained in it could be turned to such account. The results it exhibits, like those of any other statistical inquiries, are directly connected with the science of government, which pre-supposes a general knowledge of the wants and capabilities, the defects and advantages, numerically presented, of the population and the country.
It follows that it is the duty as well as the interest of every person in Canada to assist in securing a true and honest statement of facts as they really are. Many persons imagine the census schedules may be in some way used as a sort of advertisement for them, or as a reflection upon them. The fact is, that these schedules are never seen except by the Commissioners and others engaged in taking and compiling the census, who, besides being sworn officers, bound not to divulge any individual information, care very little for, and have no interest in, the several statements contained in them. The names are taken in the census schedules simply for a check upon the returns, and to afford opportunity to correct any palpable error. In other words, the enumeration by names is a necessary guarantee of good faith and correctness, and it has no other object.
It must, further, be borne in mind, that the questions put cannot embrace everything of interest, but must, on the contrary, be limited to matters of leading importance to Canada. There are even matters of general interest which must be omitted, as well because of the intricacies they present, as of the necessity there is of limiting the number of questions asked.
Individuals and localities have their own preferences and their own special interests; but, in every case, it must be remembered that the census operations are intended to deal generally with very broad information, and that, therefore, many interesting products must be left out of the schedules.
Products of great importance to particular localities may
appear relatively insignificant when viewed in connection with, and simply as forming part of, the entire products of the country at large. To take every detail and make every inquiry is an impossibility.
Whatever plan is adopted for taking a census, whatever inquiries are proposed to be made, and whatever care is bestowed in preparing the schedules or filling in the answers, difficulties will still be met, and defects found in practice.
These must be overcome by the best attainable means. The success of a census depends upon obtaining an honest return (which shall be as accurate as possible) of the facts asked for in the schedules; and this success is dependent on three conditions, the absence of anyone of which will render the result of the whole defective in a proportionate degree.
These desiderata are:
2nd. The selection of honest, intelligent, well-instructed and painstaking enumerators, bound under the obligation of a solemn oath.
3rd. An honest, willing and painstaking people to answer the questions put to them.
Census operations are more difficult on this continent than in many European countries, on account of differences of social organization and administrative machinery; and further, on account of the different proportions of territorial area to population. More painstaking application on the part of the census officers of all grades, and more active aid on the part of the people at large are, therefore, required in this country.
A series of schedules has been adopted, on moderate sized sheets of paper, with only twenty-five lines to write on each page; each schedule being devoted to a particular class of information. The facility of handling, writing and compiling thus obtained has permitted an increase of the number of headings of inquiry, without adding undb.1y to the time necessary for taking the answers to the questions put.
The schedules, arranged in order, are placed in portfolios, to be easy of carriage, as well as easily handled, affording facilities for writing in the answers, and for compiling them.
The schedules are explained by this Manual; in which are given (illustrated by a set of Specimen-filled Schedules) remarks upon almost every column, and instructions intended to aid the officers to overcome the difficulties which necessarily arise in practice.
These Specimen Schedules are simply intended to indicate the manner of filling up the Working schedules, and to illustrate the way in which the Census is to be taken. But there is no intention of conveying through them any idea of the ratio of things, such as ages, sex, births, deaths, establishments, etc.; nor any relation between the localities mentioned at the head of each page and the imaginary facts entered on the page; the whole being simply as an example, and not for the purpose of showing any connection, except in so far as is indicated by the references from one schedule to another.
These Specimen Schedules will be distributed to every officer, commissioner and enumerator, sometime before the taking of the census, in order to allow each one to acquaint himself with the questions which he is compelled by law to ask; to prepare himself, in advance, for the intelligent and prompt execution of his duties, and to help him to avoid the mistakes that may arise from sudden questioning, as well as to shorten the time necessary for taking down the answers.
Fourteen officers have been selected as Chief Census Officers for Canada. These, after spending some time at the seat of Government studying census matters generally, and pointing out the circumstances and requirements of the several sections of the respective provinces, go, each to the census "districts set apart as his field of operations, to confer with the Commissioners, to impart to each of these the results of their labours and studies, and to represent the Department in the territorial divisions assigned to them. When the Commissioners finish their conferences with the Chief Officers, and become fully imbued with a knowledge of the schedules, instructions and details of the census-taking, they, in their turn, hold conferences with the enumerators of their respective census districts, in order to put them (the enumerators) through the same process of instruction. It is hoped that, by the aid of these preliminary studies, and the working of this system of graduated instruction, every officer connected with the census will be fully prepared for his task.
The principle adopted for the registration of the population is that which is called by statists the population de droit or de jure; that is, the population legally domiciled within the territory of Canada, and including all persons who may be temporarily absent from their places of abode, whether at the fisheries, at sea, or in the forest etc.
All persons are to be registered in the province and particular locality in which their census home, family-dwelling, or place of abode is situated, although they may happen to be in
other parts of Canada,-in the forest, or at sea, or in foreign parts, on the day with reference to which the census is taken, that is, the 6th of April, 1891.
There are many persons who are absent from Canada, about whose right to be counted in our census there is no doubt. Thus, seamen away for one, two or three years, whose wives and families are in Canada, and consequently whose domicile is in Canada, should be taken by the enumerator. In the same way, children abroad for their education, though absent for two or more years, are to be taken with their parents. There is, however, a large class of persons who are away from Canada about whom their parents may reasonably be in doubt whether it is their purpose to return to Canada. In these cases, after exhausting inquiry without satisfactory result, the enumerator is to ask: "Have these persons been away for twelve months". If the answer is "Yes", then these are not to be taken in the census; the presumption being that they have abandoned Canada and settled elsewhere. The same rule will hold good in cases where members of a family have left one province and settled in another. In order to make the details of this- system of registration very clearly understood, cases that will occur in practice are furnished as follows:
Sea-faring men or fishermen at sea or on the coast, lumbermen or hunters in the forest, merchants, or tradesmen, or labourers, or travellers, or students, or any others happening to be temporarily absent from home and not permanently settled elsewhere, are not to be considered as absent for the purposes of the census; but their names are to be registered by the enumerator as being present.
Therefore, the names of seamen at sea, college students and school children, of the sick in hospitals, of inmates temporarily present in educational, charitable or penal institutions, are to be taken down in their own provinces, at their own domiciles or homes, and not at temporary abiding places or institutions.
In other words, all living members of one family are to be registered as being present at the family abode, unless they are settled in homes of their own, or have left the country with intention not to return, or, having given no expression of their intention to return, have been absent for twelve months under the conditions above mentioned.
When, therefore, an enumerator finds any person in one province of Canada, whose home or dwelling is in another, he is to be careful not to make any entry in his schedules; as the registration is to be made in the province where his home is.
Domestic servants come under three classes:
2nd. Those who have no homes in Canada.
3rd. Those in settled employment and resident with families other than their own.
Those of the 1st class are to be taken with the families from which they are temporarily absent. Those of the 2nd and 3rd classes are to be taken with the families with which they were on the 6th of April.
Clerks in stores, etc., follow the same rules.
Persons having no family abode and no fixed domicile of any kind are, of course, to be registered whenever met with, whether on board ship, in shanties, public institutions, or private houses. Orphans, kept in public institutions or private, families, are, accordingly, to be taken with such institutions or families. Homeless, sick or destitute persons in asylums and hospitals, and prisoners without family abode, or sentenced for life, are to be taken in the institutions or prisons where they happen to be.
A family, as understood for the purposes of the census, may consist of one person living alone, or of any number of, persons living together under one roof, and having their food provided together. For example: One man, say a shopkeeper, or one woman, say a seamstress; living alone in a separate house, or in a distinctly separate part of a house, would constitute a census family; but any number of persons living together in a boarding-house, several of them being parents, having children and servants, would only constitute one census family, provided they have no home elsewhere.
Returns, which are to embrace a Yearly Period, such as the number of deaths, the enumeration of products, etc., are to be counted for the twelve months immediately preceding the 6th of April. The headings of the columns afford a clear indication of the nature of each question.
Therefore, any person who was alive on the 6th of April, 1891, although he may have died between that date and the date of the enumerator's visit, is to be recorded as if living; and, for the same reason, infants who may have been born after the 6th of April, 1891, are not to be recorded, whether dead or alive.
The Duties of each class of officers employed are defined by the Census Act, herewith published.
The remuneration of Commissioners and enumerators will be as settled by His Excellency in Council, pursuant to the
24th section of the Census Act; legally no payment can be made to any officer until the whole of his work is completed in a satisfactory manner.
The Explanations, hereinafter given respecting each schedule, and each heading of the schedules, accompanied by the s:gecimen schedule for an illustration, will indicate to the several officers how practical questions are to be met and solved.
The Enumeration, as the law prescribes, must be taken down in writing by the enumerator himself, he going personally from house to house, and writing in the schedules, in the most scrupulous manner, the answers given to the questions arising out of the headings, in the order of their numbering. The information, which is in every case recorded, must be the definite answer of the person to whom the question is put; and the enumerator is never to take upon himself to insert anything which is not stated, or distinctly acknowledged, by the person giving the information. It would be criminal to insert anything contrary to the declaration of such person.
But it is the duty of the enumerator to assist the person giving the information so far as to point out to him any apparent error, or indicate any apparent fact omitted. In every case he must carefully read over the facts he has recorded to the person from whom he has obtained them, for the purpose of checking the correctness of his entries.
In case of refusal of any person to answer questions put, which are necessary to obtain information required for filling the schedules, or in the event of the enumerator receiving any information which is apparently untrue, it is his duty to warn such person against the consequences of such criminal course; and if the refusal is persisted in, his duty then will be to bring the offender to justice, as provided by the Act, Sections 17 and 18.
In other words, the enumerator is the recorder of answers to questions put by authority of the Executive under the sanction of Parliament; but it is required that he be an intelligent and conscientious officer, not a mere machine; and his duty is to guard himself and all concerned against errors and frauds.
In all cases of difficulty (and such cases will occasionally arise) the enumerator must deal with them in the best possible manner, taking for his guide the spirit of the law and the general tenor of this Manual. He must endeavour:
2. Not to record the same thing twice.
3. Not to exaggerate anything.
4. Not to underrate anything.
The very best way of fulfilling these conditions, and fairly and properly performing his duties, is for the enumerator to make a painstaking study of his schedules and this Manual, and thoroughly to acquaint himself with all particulars and peculiarities of his sub-district.
An intelligent and well trained enumerator will, in fact, generally speaking, know beforehand what are, as a whole, the conditions of every family in his sub-district. It is necessary, for the success of the census, that the intercourse of the enumerators with the public be characterized, on the part of these officers, with discretion and forbearance. Every objection made, or question put, to the enumerators, must be met-with proper, satisfactory and courteous explanations.
Persons showing distrust or hesitation in giving their answers, must be assured that no information they may give, and that nothing taken down in the schedules, can, by possibility, injure or in any way affect their standing or their business. The enumerator will act under oath, and his duty will be to preserve the strictest secrecy, as well with respect to any verbal statements made to him as to his enumeration records. He is not permitted to show, or in any way to communicate these to any person whatever, except to the Commissioner of his own district, or to the Chief Officer in charge thereof; both of whom also act under oath, and are forbidden, under any circumstances, to communicate anything therein contained to any person whatever, except to other sworn officers of the Department, all bound by the like prohibition.
The Commissioners and enumerators are forbidden to give any synopsis of the result of the census, or any part thereof, to anyone. Partial communication of information is calculated to produce mischief, if not to mislead, and may be made subservient to purposes' totally unconnected with the census, and detrimental to it. The result will be given by the Department in a careful and comprehensive manner, at the earliest possible date.
It is required of all officers connected with the taking of the census that they bring to the accomplishment of their task that discretion generally necessary on the part of all public servants, but especially so where duties of great trust and delicacy are to be performed. It is further specially required of every census officer that he make himself thoroughly acquainted? with the whole matter before his actual work commences. After the work has begun it is not the time for study or inquiry, but for action. If an enumerator finds difficulties after the commencement of his travels he must bring to their solution his best intellectual faculties, aided by his previously acquired information respecting census matters; and he should consult the Manual and specimen schedules, which he must always keep in his portfolio. When commencing his actual duties the enumerator is recommended to make his first entries with the greatest care, spending more time upon these than will be subsequently required.
In case an enumerator meets a difficulty of a special and exceptional character, he is required to make a short notice of it attaching it to the schedule in which it occurs, explaining the manner in which he has met the difficulty.
All documents sent to the Officers, Commissioners and Enumerators, are, in their nature, private, with the exception, of course, of the "Census Act", the Manual, and such as have been published in the "Canada Gazette".
The eight Schedules for the taking of the census consist of a regular series. They are all to be taken up, one after the other, in the order of numbering, at every visit made by each enumerator.
These schedules have been printed on paper of superior quality, manufactured expressly for this purpose. It is required that the whole returns be made in a creditable as well as intelligible manner, and Commissioners and enumerators will see that the best materials of pen and ink are employed in filling the Schedules; that the Schedules are kept clean and in good order, without any folding or bruising; and that the writing and figures are neatly made.
The Schedules will be delivered to each enumerator in a Portfolio, and they are not to be carried anywhere without this. After use they are to be returned to the Commissioners in the same order, in the portfolios; and the Commissioners, in like manner, are to deliver them in the portfolios to the Department, of the archives of which they are to form a part.
As there are no reasons for the Commissioners or the enumerators acquainting themselves with the aggregate results, they are not to add up the columns of the schedules. Revisions and corrections, when required to be made in the returns by the enumerators and the Commissioners conjointly, as provided by section 12 of the Census Act, refer to statements attached to each of the details inscribed, and not to the general results.
Any error committed (but with propel care there should be none, or very few), or any omission made, should be corrected or supplied by drawing a faint ink line through the erroneous entry, and any change must be supplied by writing in an interline. There must be no erasure of any kind; nor yet any such obliteration of any entry made, as shall render the same illegible.
Every entry must be confined to its own column, and the writing and figures of each answer are not to interfere with any adjoining space in the schedule; the figures are to be entered in regular rows, to facilitate compilation.
The enumerator must himself, in every case, go in person to every dwelling or industrial establishment in each district or division at which inquiry is to be made. Each heading of every schedule, with the exceptions hereinafter specified, is to be read over at every visit. The enumerator is not to take for granted that any person addressed can only supply answers to the questions arising from the headings of part of the schedules. He must, with the exceptions referred to, ask every question. And for proof that this requirement has been systematically fulfilled, it is ordered that an entry be made at every column in every case, whether negative or affirmative, in the manner hereinafter indicated, and as illustrated in the specimen schedules.
The exceptions are the 2nd and the 6th Schedules, relating to "Deaths, and Public Institutions", and "Industrial Establishments". In these no entry is necessary on the answer "No" being given to the question whether any death has occurred in the family during the last twelve months; or whether there is any "Industrial Establishment" carried on by the family. But, in the case of "Industrial Establishments", it must be remembered that many farmers or others have a sawmill, a tannery etc., attached to their ordinary industries.
If a boarder has any industry, or produces anything himself, entirely separate from the family in which he is domiciled, a separate entry must be made of his products; but if he only works with the family, there must only be one entry. In other words: Schedule No. 1 will contain as many lines written as there are living persons recorded; No.2, so far as relation to deaths, as many lines as there have been deaths during the twelve months; No.3, as many lines as there are families, owners or producers; No.4, the same; No.5, the same; No.6, as many lines as there are industrial establishments; No.7, as many lines as there are families, owners or producers; No.8, the same.
Every abbreviation of one letter must be by a capital letter, such as "M" for male, "F" for female, etc., and must be very carefully written. The negative sign, to be written in every column in which there is nothing to be entered or when the answer "No" is given, is to be in the form of a dash, written thus: "--"
The affirmative sign, equivalent to the answer "Yes," to a question, will be made by writing the figure "1" in the column; or, in other words, the entering of this figure will indicate that the person or thing is to be counted in the enumeration.
The sign "" may be made for idem or ditto, under a plainly written item of information, and provided that the item is repeated on the first line of each page.
Recapitulation of the conventional signs:
"--": Nothing", "No", "Not concerned", or "Unknown"
"1": "Yes", "To be counted"
"": "Idem" or "ditto"
To fill the columns where the calendar months are to be entered, the following abbreviations may be used:
"Feb." for February
"Mar." for March
"Apr." for April
"May" for May
"Jun." for June
"Jul." for July
"Aug." for August
"Sep." for September
"Oct." for October
"Nov." for November
"Dec." for December
"Q." for Quebec
"N.B." for New Brunswick
"P.E.I." for Prince Ed. Island
"B.C." for British Columbia
"N.S." for Nova Scotia
"M." for Manitoba
"N.W.T." for Territories
In so far as the information sought for in this census relates to the amount of property held at the time for taking the census, and to the total amount of products of the last twelve months before such taking, each family is to appear in the capacity of a holder of property, or of a producer, or in both capacities; and as regards production, the quantities given are to comprise the grand quantity produced, whether consumed by the producer himself, sold, exported, or still on hand.
A few examples may illustrate this rule:
A manufacturer has manufactured, during the last twelve months, 10,000 yards of cloth. He is to enter the 10,000 yards, no matter what quantity he has sold or what quantity he has in stock.
A storekeeper has nothing to enter in any of these schedules as a purchaser or vend or, any more than a forwarder has to enter the goods which he has transported; but if a storekeeper has produced anything, either as a farmer, or manufacturer, or otherwise, he is to give the quantities thus produced by him, quite irrespective of anything that has passed through his hands as a dealer in products.
In every case, in the information relating to products or property (with the exception of real estate and ownership of
shipping) the quantities must be ascertained and recorded on the spot where they are found or have been extracted, raised or manufactured; with a reference to the name of the informant, in Schedule No.1, whether such informant be the proprietor or producer himself, or his representative or employee.
The initiatory filling up of the blanks at the head of each of the eight schedules left for indication of the several Provinces, districts and sub-districts, is to be done by the commissioner; and the continuation of this process by the enumerator.
The paging of each book of schedules is to be continuous, without any interruption, or interpolation, and without any double paging.
Both the commissioners and enumerators are required to return every sheet of the working schedules, whether filled or not and whether spoiled or not. The original schedules must be returned to the Department; and no copy of them is to be made.
Any deviation from these rules will be a presumption of error.
The commissioners and enumerators, in the transmission and use of schedules, are to take all necessary measures to protect them against inclemency of the weather, or from any kind of injury, or from any alteration, interference or inspection, by any other than the proper officers.
When two or more enumerators are appointed for one sub-district the Commissioner will distinguish the separate portions of these sub-districts, as Division 1, Division 2, etc., and in his final report he will give a topographical description of each. When, on the contrary, one enumerator is appointed for two sub- districts, separate sets of schedules are to be prepared for him; one set for each sub-district.
The date of each day's enumeration is to be indicated by the enumerator writing his initials on the right-hand margin of the last line he has filled in of Schedule No.1, opposite the last name registered, and only at the end of each day; and each such record is to be signed by the enumerator, as per specimen schedule.
Nominal Return of the Living
This schedule refers to The Living, and will contain the actual population, registered name by name, family by family, taken from house to house. The population is to be recorded as it exists on the 6th day of April, 1891.
Column 1. Every vessel, which is the abode and domicile of a family, or on board which there may happen to be any person or persons belonging to our population, not having a domicile, on shore, or not forming part of any family having a domicile on shore, is to be registered in this column. Every vessel is to be indicated in this column by using the letter "V", as shown in specimen schedule.
In the same column are to be shown all dwellings of a temporary character, inhabited only for a part of the year, such as lumbering shanties, public works, shanties, fishermen's huts, Indian wigwams, etc., the letter "S" being used for the purpose.
If houses in construction or uninhabited are met with in rows, as if often the case in towns, then the recording is to be made by writing in the proper column the number of houses in the row, 2 or 5, as the case may be; when met with singly, by the number 1.
As it is deemed of great importance to obtain information respecting the sorts of house in which our people are sheltered, the enumerator will find out the number of rooms, and will also give the number of stories and the material used in the construction of the houses. Thus, S. 2/6 will mean that the house enumerated is built of stone, has two stories and six rooms. This mode of distinguishing the houses is to be followed in columns 2, 3 and 4.
There may be several families in the same house; but the house would, nevertheless, only constitute one house, as shown in the specimen, schedule.
A separate house is to be counted, whenever the entrance from the outside is separate.
Column 6. The names of living persons, all belonging to each Census family (according to the rules hereinbefore laid down) are to be entered in full, in the following manner, and as shown in the specimen schedule:
"" , Mary
The family name being first given, and then the Christian name
Column 8. The filling of this column needs explanation only in the case of infants under one year, when the record will be made thus: under one month "0"; thence in fractions 1/12, 2/12, 3/12 etc., up to 1 1/2 as in specimen schedule.
Column 15. In writing down the religion the enumerator must be very careful to enter with precision the information given by the person questioned; and to be sure that the denomination is well defined, especially when making use of abbreviations, such, for instance, as are shown in the specimen schedule.
In thus recording the religious denominations it will, in many cases, be necessary to make use of abbreviations to save space; but in doing so the principal or key word should be, sufficiently written, as :-
"Meth." for Methodist
"F. W. Bapt." for Free-Will Baptist
"R. C." for Roman Catholic
"C. E." for Church of England
And so on for other denominations which may be designated by a: title too long to be recorded in full.
Column 16. The profession, trade or occupation must be entered in full; as given to the enumerator. When two of these are united in one person both mayor may not be given; the point being decided by the importance attached to the fact by the person himself. When sons follow the professions or occupations of their fathers, and are associated with them, the same description is to be inserted. For instance, a farmer's son, working on his father's farm, is a farmer; a carpenter's son, working in his father's shop, a carpenter; and so other young men, when 'studying professions, are to be registered as "Medical student", "Law student", etc.; and when apprenticed to trades, are to be entered in a similar way. Young men at colleges (but not school children) are to be entered as students.
In the case of women, unless they have a definite occupation besides their share in the work of the family or household the column is to be filled with the sign "--"; as also in the case of children. If they have a special occupation, such as seamstress, clerk, factory hand, and c., then that fact should be entered accordingly.
Discrepancies in former census-takings as regards statistics of occupation have arisen from the lack of full description. Indefinite terms have been used, which the Department has.
been unable properly to classify, owing to the absence of full particulars. As each occupation must have a fully descriptive designation it is the enumerator's fault if that designation is not found out and written at length upon the schedule. You cannot be too explicit in stating occupations. As a general rule, in each case you can give:
The particular branch followed
The material worked upon.
Thirty years ago a shoemaker made a whole shoe, and a tailor made a whole suit of clothes; at the present time, owing to the sub-division of labour, few workmen begin and complete any article of manufacture. In very branch of work the specialist has succeeded the general worker, and statistics of occupation at the present day must possess the most specific detail or they will not satisfy the demands of the inquirer. To secure that specific detail we supply, for your information and guidance, the following:
Agent: Too indefinite. State kind of business, as book agent, commercial agent, cotton-mill agent, fire (or life) insurance agent, etc.
Animals, care of: Distinguish carefully between those driving horses and those doing work in barns, stables, etc.
Apprentice: Too indefinite. State kind of business, as carpenter's apprentice, painter's apprentice, machinist's apprentice, etc.,
Artist: Too indefinite. State branch of artistic work, artist-painter in oils; artist-water colours; artist-engraver; artist-sculptor, etc.
Author: Too indefinite. State whether editors, reporters, journalists (correspondents), magazine writers, novelists, historians, etc.
Bank officers: Too indefinite. State particular position filled, as bank president, bank cashier, bank teller, bank clerk, etc.
Book-keeper: State kind of business, as book-keeper-wholesale dry goods; book-keeper-grocery store; book-keeper, cotton manufacturing company, etc.
Broker: State kind of goods bought and sold, as stock and money broker, wool broker, real estate broker, insurance, broker, pawnbroker, etc.
Builder: Too indefinite. State whether house builders, bridge builders, etc., as the case may be.
Butcher: Distinguish between butchers who kill cattle, swine, etc. at au abattoir or slaughter-house, and provision dealers who sell meat and vegetables.
Clerk: Too indefinite. Write kind of business, as clerk grocery store; clerk, gas company; clerk, post office; clerk
Collector: Too indefinite. State business, as bill collector, etc.
Commissioner: Indefinite. Use a more explicit word to denote occupation
Compositor: Distinguish between compositors who set type, pressmen who run printing-presses and job printers who usually set type and run presses. Use "printer" for those who are not confined to one branch of the business, as above described.
Conductor: Indefinite. State whether steam railway conductor, horse railway conductor, etc.
Contractor: Indefinite. Use a more explicit designation.
Convict: State occupation followed in prison. If unemployed, give occupation, if any, before imprisonment.
Court Officer: State particular position filled, as, clerk, constable, marshal, etc.
Dealer: By dealers are meant merchants, storekeepers, traders, etc. -- those who buy and sell goods as a business. These terms are all too indefinite. The kind of business must be given in every case, and whether wholesale, retail, jobbing or commission; as, retail dealers, books and stationery; wholesale dealer; carpets; retail dealers, groceries; whole- sale dealer, coal; retail dealer, tinware, and c. The terms milkman and marketman are sufficiently explicit.
Driver: See "Animals, care of"
Engineer: Too indefinite. State whether a locomotive or railway engineer, stationary engineer, steamboat engineer, civil engineer, etc., as the case may be.
Employee: This term is too indefinite, and should not be used in this column. There is no business in which a more explicit word cannot be found.
Factory hand (or operative): This term should not be used. Even if the kind of business is given as cotton mill, factory operative-that is not sufficiently definite. The actual occupation or kind of labour done, as cotton mill spinner, is what is needed.
Farmer: Distinguish between farmer, market gardener, seed gardeners, orchard men, nursery men, florists, etc.
Farm labourer: A person employed by a farmer. (See "Labourers" for further instructions concerning them).
Finisher: Indefinite. Always state the "article finished"
Fireman: State whether railway fireman, steamboat fireman, stationary engine fireman, etc., or member of Fire Department.
Foreman: State kind of business in every case, as machine shop foreman, etc.
Government: State, first, whether, in Federal, Provincial, city or town service; second, in what branch of that service; and, third, the particular position filled, as captain, of Canadian force, Finance Department accountant, town constable, etc.
Housekeeper: Use this term only for such persons as receive wages or salary for their services.
Inspector: Indefinite. State "what is inspected", as gas inspector, milk inspector, etc.
Jobber: see "Dealer" and "Merchant"
Judge: State whether Federal or Provincial judge (or Justice) and particular position filled, as Supreme Court Judge; Police Court.
Labourer: State kind of labour, as farm labourer, market garden labourer, railway labourer, brick mason's labourer, etc., as the case may be.
Maker: Be careful not to confound makers and manufacturers. A maker of any article is the person who begins, continues and completes its fabrication. Thus, a person who makes a boot in every part himself is a bootmaker. Owing to the division of labour, previously explained, there fi.re now comparatively few persons in any branch of industry who make an entire article; but, instead, they make parts of the article, as, piano leg maker. Instead of furniture-maker, write chairmaker, sofa-maker, and c., as the calm may be. Of course, chocolate- maker, bonnet-maker, lace-maker, and such terms, where the article made is plainly defined, and where the labour is, not divided, can be properly used.
Manager: State "what is managed", as telephone company manager; express company-general manager, etc.; rail, way-general manager.
Manufacturer: Use this term for those who carryon the business of manufacturing. They are always employers, and this latter word is comprehended by manufacturers. State the article or kind of goods manufactured, as cotton goods manufacturer; chocolate manufacturer; woollen good manufacturer ; bonnet manufacturer; furniture manufacturer, etc., as much in detail as the case will allow.
Mason: Indefinite. State whether brick or stone mason.
Mechanic: A term that is indefinite and of no statistical value. Do not use it, but give the name of the occupation, as carpenter, painter, glazier, plumber, etc.
Merchant: See "Dealer". A merchant may be a wholesale, jobbing, retail, or commission dealer, or an agent. State always the kind of goods bought and sold.
Messenger: State "what kind of a messenger", as telegraph messenger, express company messenger, etc.
Musician: Indefinite. State whether a professional vocalist or instrumentalist, and, if the latter, what musical instrument as pianist, violinist, etc.
Officer: Indefinite. State always the particular held, as cotton manufacturing company-president; company-treasurer, etc., as the case may be.
Official: see "Government"
Overseer: State "what the person oversees", spinner-overseer; street labourers-overseer, etc. Operative: Indefinite (see Factory hand). Do not use term, but a more explicit one, giving the general name of the
Packer: State "what they pack", as paper packer; pork packer; wholesale crockery packer, etc.
Pauper.-Write pauper and give occupation, if any, before becoming a pauper.
Paymaster: State business, as railway paymaster, cottonmill, paymaster, etc.
Peddler: State kind of goods sold, as tinware peddler, notion peddler, etc.
Personal service: State plainly the kind of work done, as barber, bootblack, companion, janitor, nurse, watchman, etc. When possible, state where the work is performed, as schoolhouse janitor.
Physicians and surgeons: State, in the case of physician, whether regular practitioners and the school of medicine, as physician-allopathic. Designate particularly those who are physicians only, surgeons only, or physicians and surgeons; distinguish specialists as aurists, oculists, dentists, veterinary surgeons, etc.
Porter: State kind of business, as wholesale dry goods porter, etc.
Printer and Pressman: See "Compositor". State kind of business, whether newspaper, book, music, lithographic, chromolithographic, heliotype, artotype, etc.
Publisher: State "what he publishes", as newspapers, books, maps, engravings, etc.
Sailor: Distinguish between sailors or mariners, and fishermen. State whether on steam or sailing vessels.
Salesman: State kind of goods sold, as hardware salesman, dry goods salesman, etc. Do not confound with clerks, which heading see. Follow the above rule in case of travelling salesmen, as clothing travelling salesman, etc.
Scientific person: Distinguish by the most explicit names, as architects, botanists, naturalists, geologists, astronomers, surveyors, civil engineers, etc.
Secretary: Indefinite. State kind of business, as Insurance company-secretary, etc.
Servant, domestic: Many families employ but one servant, whose duties are of a general nature. In such cases say-general servant. Where possible give name indicating particular service, and place where service is performed, as cook, family; chambermaid, hotel; table girl, family, etc.
Speculator: Indefinite. State articles or goods dealt in, as speculator-mining stocks.
Storekeeper: see "Dealer" and "Merchant"
Superintendent: State "what he superintends", as horse railway superintendent; or the kind of manufacturing business.
Tailor: Distinguish custom-made and ready-made, and state particular part of work done, as ready-made, tailorcutter, etc.
Teamster: (see "Animals, care of")
Trader: (see "Dealer and merchant")
Treasurer: State kind of business, as cotton-mill-treasurer, etc.
Columns 21 and 22 are for the purpose of procuring knowledge of the condition of education. The figure "1" will be used in each column when "Yes" is the answer. A dash will indicate that the person cannot read, or write, or neither, as the case may be.
The heading "unsound mind" is intended to include all those unfortunates who are plainly deprived of reason. As many persons entertain prejudice on that account, the enumerator; if he is acquainted with the fact beforehand, must approach it with great delicacy, taking care, however, not to omit the entry of any such case. No attempt is made to distinguish between the various maladies affecting the intellect; as experience proves that the result of such inquiries made under such circumstances is perfectly worthless.
This schedule of the deaths of the twelve months ending the 6th of April, 1891, is rendered necessary from the absence, the largest part of the Dominion, of other returns. The enumerator must be very particular in inquiring of very family whether any death has occurred in it during the last twelve months, never failing to explain that deaths of newborn infants are to be given, as well as all other deaths whatever.
The necessity for extreme care and attention, and searching industry, on the part of the enumerator, as regards to the schedule of deaths, cannot be too strongly impressed. The ratio of deaths is a most important test of the accuracy of statistical returns of population.
The enumerators are not required to put questions for every column in this schedule (No.2), unless the answer to the general question: "Has any death occurred in this family or
house during the last twelve months?" is in the affirmative; as shown in the filling of specimen schedule No.2, in connection with No. 1.
Column 10. With respect to column 7, the enumerator will be careful to record the occupation of the deceased. In the case of children and women who would be recorded, if living, as without occupation, the enumerator will give the occupation of the head of the family. When the death has been caused by accident, or such well-known diseases as small-pox, consumption, senile debility, etc., there is no difficulty in ascertaining the fact. But, in many cases, it is very difficult to give a definite account of the disease causing death. The enumerators are to do their best, however, to ascertain it, without losing too much time in doing so; and without any attempt to enter into any theoretical medical classification. In every case the entry should be as short as possible, and general in its bearing. Such entries, for instance, as "disease of the heart", "disease of the brain", "disease of the bowels", etc., may suffice, in the absence of more definite information from a medical source. When there is nothing certain about the disease it is better to enter the sign "--", the meaning of which will be, in this instance, "not ascertained".
In all cases where there is a medical man, the enumerator should call upon him and ask him to forward to the Department the booklet of "Physicians return of deaths" sent to medical men more than a year ago.
Columns 11, 12 and 13. There are to be entered in these columns all institutions of a public character, such as churches, convents, universities, colleges, academies, schools of all sorts, public and private asylums, refuges, hospitals, charitable and benevolent institutions of all sorts, prisons and other penal institutions; as also institutions of a commercial character: such as Banks and other joint stock companies. These and all other institutions relating to this schedule, are to be registered in it by the enumerator of the sub-district or division where they happen to be; and whenever such institution is attached to or dependent on any. Religious denomination, mention is to be made of the fact in the manner pointed out in the specimen schedule.
Whenever an enumerator meets, within his division, with church, a school, or any other building belonging to an institution, but at the time having no one residing in it, he must make inquiry, and get the information required, from the best and nearest informant.
Column 13. The number of inmates mentioned in the heading of this column means the number of persons residing at the time under the roof of the institution, respectively of the number who may frequent it during the day time. This head of information is not connected with the question of permanent
domicile of persons, and has no relation to the total number of the population.
Schedule No. 3.
Real Estate, Orchard Products, Nurseries, Vineyards and Market Gardens.
In the case of land owned by public institutions, banks, common and other schools, Incorporated companies the enumerator or, as already stated, will obtain the information required by this schedule from the best sources he can, and in case of any institution given in Column 11, No. 2 Schedule, be will make reference to the number of the institution in Columns 1 and 2 of Schedule No.3, by writing over the said numbers the figure 2 to indicate that the entry refers to an institution and not to an individual as shown in specimen Schedule.
Taking, for illustration, the first entry in them, "Page 1, Number 1", refers back to William Jones, the first name entered on page 1 of Schedule 1. The personal particulars respecting him are given after the entry of his name in that schedule. From Schedule No.3 we learn, further, that he is owner of 200 acres of land, of 1 dwelling house, 2 barils, etc.
All the references to Schedule No.1, in columns Nos. 1 and 2, are made in the same way, throughout the whole of the schedules in which they occur; and they will appear very plain if traced throughout the specimen schedules by the aid of the above explanation.
Column 3. Here is to be entered the total number of acres of land held by the person or institution concerned, no matter where situated within Canada. This, with the remainder of the schedule, to and including column 7, is intended to give, as a result, the division of property in Canada, taken as a whole.
For instance, let us suppose the case of a man living in Halifax, owning 1,000 acres of land in each of the four provinces, whether cultivated or uncultivated, the entry must be 4,000.
In the case of commercial or religious institutions, such Banks, Convents, etc., the enumerator when he comes schedule will ask the informant whether that institution is the headquarters of the Confraternity.
If so he will take the answers. If, however, the headquarters are elsewhere, he will not take the statements respecting ownership of real estate, as these will be all given to the enumerators in whose Census division such headquarters are situated.
Columns 4, 5, 6, and 7. The same remark is to be made the filling of these columns, which are to contain the amount of the kinds of property mentioned held by the individual or institution referred to.
All properties belonging to the same family are to be entered under one reference to the head of the family; properties of minors or orphans under a reference to the tutor or guardian; undivided properties, held in common by several institutions or families by shares, must be recorded in such manner as not to run the risk of omitting, or recording twice, the same properties.
A careful study of these lines, in connection with the specimen schedule, will make this matter easily understood; though at first it may appear complicated.
In the preceding columns landed property was entered as connected with ownership, as well by individuals as institutions, irrespectively of situation or actual occupancy; the columns embracing within the scope of their inquiry all land held in the Dominion. Columns 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, on, the contrary, refer to land in actual occupancy within the enumerator's division.
Column 8. In this is to be entered the capacity in which the person occupying the property holds it. If owner, put the letter "0" (whether such proprietor is an individual or a company); if tenant, the letter "T"; and if an employee of the proprietor, the letter "E".
Column 9. In this column is to be entered the number of acres of land which the enumerator finds occupied by the person visited. In the column 3 he had to ask the total number of acres each informant holds in the whole Dominion; but in this column he must be careful to ask, not for the whole number of acres held, but for those only actually occupied by the informant within his division. For instance, his informant might own 2,000 acres of land in various parts of Canada, and yet only occupy 100 acres within the division; these last alone would be entered in this schedule.
Column 13 refers to gardens and orchards. Under this latter term is comprehended any plantation of fruit trees. In recording the land in this column no fractional parts of an acre are to be written, except t, t, or I, whether the quantity is over or under one acre.
Columns 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20. These columns need no special explanation. In the French districts of the Province of Quebec, where the arpent is used instead of the acre, and the minot instead of the bushel, the enumerator is simply required to enter the quantity given by the informant; the reduction will be made in the compiling.
Enumerators must not forget that the products recorded in this schedule may be and often are raised by families engaged in carrying on farming-say on patches of land or gardens
attached to tenements even in the middle of large cities. The facts must, therefore, be ascertained in every case and entered.
This, being a return of farm products requires little explanation. The remarks respecting the arpent and the minot, made in the previous schedule, apply to this schedule.
In column 18, recording the hay crop, the quantity may be given either by tons of 2,000 lbs. or by bundles of 16 lbs.
The quantities given will always indicate to the compiler the mode of reckoning; and the reduction, will be made in the Department. It is a matter of paramount importance, as well for economy of time as for securing accuracy, to avoid leaving any, calculations to be made by the enumerators when it is possibly be obviated. An exception is made, however in column 32, when the enumerator will ask the number of pounds of sugar, and then the number of gallons of standard syrup (12 pounds to the gallon); and in order to reduce this syrup to its equivalent in sugar, he will deduct one-third.
The remark made in Schedule 3, respecting products raised on small patches of ground, applies to this schedule.
The enumerator will notice that columns 1 and 2, in this schedule, contain the same references to Schedule No.1 as in the previous schedule.
Columns 1 and 2 contain the same references to Schedule No.1 as in previous schedules.
The remainder of this schedule is so clear and, definite that there is no need of any special explanation for any of the columns therein contained. Of all the information, called for in a census, that which is the subject of this schedule is, on the whole, the easiest to obtain and the easiest to record.
The following remarks, however, may be made: The homemade butter and cheese, mentioned in columns 19 and 20 are here entered as in contradistinction to butter and cheese made in manufacturing establishments, which are to be entered in Schedule No.6. In the same way, home-made fabrics are to be kept distinct from those made in cloth and linen factories. As regards Column 25, it must be remembered that cloth and flannel are to include blankets, shawls, such articles reckoned by the yard.
The recording of the value of furs in dollars refers to all kinds of furs, but only such as were caught by the person interviewed. Many inquiries have been made as to whether the census would include questions relating to labour; and, in response, columns 28 and 29 have been added, so as to enable the Department to ascertain, for the information of farmers generally, the cost of hired labour, and the time occupied during the year on the farm by the hired help.
Column 29. Weeks of hired labour should be obtained by adding together the number of weeks each individual of the help employed was at work; thus, one man hired by the year should be counted as 52 weeks; another man for six months as 26 weeks; two men for haying and harvest time, each six weeks, as 12 weeks; making a total for that farm of 90 weeks of hired labour.
This schedule relates to Industrial Establishments, and is one of which it is not required that all the questions be put to every head of family, or negative answers recorded.
There is in it, moreover, no reference to Schedule No. 1. Entries in this schedule are only to be made when an industrial establishment of some kind is met with, but the enumerator is required to ask whether such does or does not exist at every visit he makes.
An industrial establishment is a place where one or several persons are employed in manufacturing, altering, making up, or changing from one shape into another, materials for sale, use, or consumption, quite irrespectively of the amount of capital employed or of the products turned out.
A lime kiln, a cheese factory, a brick-yard, a ship-building yard, a grind-stone factory, a sulphuric acid manufactory, a saw-mill, a marblecutter's shed, a wheel factory, a pottery, a foundry, a meat-curing or "packing" establishment, an establishment to manufacture copper regulus or purify plumbago, a cloth manufactory, a carding mill, a grist mill, a planing and dove-tailing mill, a sash factory, as well as a shoe-making, harness making, dress-making, tailor's, or blacksmith's shop, or carpenter's or joiner's shop, etc., are all industrial establishments. Any establishment, we repeat, where materials are manufactured, made up, changed or altered from one form into another, for sale, use, or consumption, is an industrial establishment, no matter how small it may be. All repairs, mending, custom work, are understood to be industrial products, and are to be entered accordingly, by value, in the returns of industrial establishments. It must be well understood that hands employed on hire in such industrial? establishments are not to give the result of their labour separately.
The returns of industrial establishments are to be recorded in the district, subdistrict, and division where the enumerator finds the establishment, and nowhere else. This principle is essential in every case. The production is attached to the locality.
Whenever an enumerator meets in his division with an industrial establishment which is closed he will ascertain by allowable means. If the establishment has been in operation during the census year; if so he will register the required information.
It matters not whether the raw material is in the ownership of the manufacturer or not, whether it is transformed on account of one or another person, whether the work is a profitable or losing business; the information required is the result from the establishment, so far as requested. For instance, a saw-mill may saw logs and other lumber for a great number of persons; the working may cost more than the returns bring to the owner; but, nevertheless, the amount of raw material has changed form, and so much value has been added to it; and these are the facts to be recorded, in so far as the value is concerned.
Wherever the entry is in dollars it is to be made without fractions of dollars. The number of people employed may be made up exclusively of members of the family of the proprietor; in other places the proprietor and family may not form part of the people employed. All these circumstances are illustrated in Specimen Schedule No. 6.
Column 11. In this case "full time" means the number of days in the year in which the establishment would be working under ordinary circumstances. Thus, in the case of saw-mills which are not in working order for more than a certain number of months in the year, full time would mean the sawing season, and would not have reference to the twelve months. The same remark refers to Columns 12 and 13.
Apart from these general remarks, this schedule does not require any special explanations; every heading being in itself sufficiently explicit, and the practical working being illustrated in the Specimen Schedule.
The oral instructions of both Staff Officers and Commissioners will aid in mastering some difficulties, and in rendering easy the practical working of this schedule.
Columns 1 and 2 are for the same purpose of reference to Schedule No.1, as previously explained.
This schedule relates to the products of the forest, in the state in which they are got out simply, and must not be confounded with returns of sawmills, ship-building yards, or industrial establishments.
The reason of this is obvious, and applies equally to products of farms as to products of the forest. In the same way that pounds of wool are to be recorded as articles produced in the district of their production, so must lumber of the forest be, no matter what transformation it may afterwards undergo, or how many miles away from the place of growth it may be recorded.
In this schedule is to be recorded the total quantity of forest product~ got out, and where got out; notwithstanding that part of them have been consumed or made use of on the spot, or whether they have been sold, or are still on hand. The quantities here to be recorded must be taken in the census district, and on the spot where they were produced, and not at the distant office of the merchant, who may happen to have furnished the capital or engaged the men to do the work. The information is to be had from the farmer who hauled the lumber; or from the contractor or foreman in shanties, on the spot.
Most of these columns do not require special explanation; although they may give some labour to the enumerator in obtaining the information. Care must be taken that everything' be recorded without diminution or exaggeration, always explaining that the quantities employed on the spot for the use of the producer himself are to be taken, as well as those still on hand or sold.
Columns 13 and 14. The methods of counting logs in different localities of Canada present so great a variety that it has been found necessary to adopt a Census Standard for registering this important product.
The Census Standard is made equal to 100 superficial feet of sawed lumber, commonly called board measurement (B.M.); in other words, the standard is to count one Jog for every 100 feet of board measurement which may begot from a given quantity of such logs.
Columns 15, 16, 17; 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24. These columns require no explanation, further than to remind the census officers that the quantities consumed or employed by the producer himself are to be counted as an essential part of the aggregate to be recorded; which in all cases is to comprise the total haul or quantities extracted.
Columns 1 and 2 are for the same purpose of' reference to Schedule No.1 as explained in the notes on other schedules. In the cases, very numerous indeed, in which the person referred to in these columns is interested only in part of this schedule, the remainder of the columns are, as regards him, to be filled with the sign, according to the general rule given.
Columns 3, 4, 5 and 6 are all to the same effect. The explanations required are therefore applicable to the four.
The columns headed "Number of shares" are intended to exhibit the number of Canadian ship-owners in each place each one being referred to as named in Schedule No.1, The ownership of shipping is to be recorded by shares in accordance with the principle laid down in the "Merchant Shipping Act," each ship being equal to 64 shares; so that when compiling the census the total number of vessels will be ascertained by dividing the total number of shares by 64.
It is needless to add, however, that whenever one or more ships are owned wholly by one person, or one institution, or company (as illustrated in specimen Schedule), the number to inscribe will be 64 for one, and as many times 64 as there are ships so exclusively owned by the same person or company: and that, in cases where parts of one or ~ore ships are owned, the total number of shares so owned IS to be recorded by figures representing the aggregate number of shares.
There will be no difficulty in recording by shares in this way, whenever the requirements of the "Merchant Shipping Act" have been complied with; but some instructions are necessary for the direction of the census officers in the very numerous cases in which partnership in vessels is reckoned by fractions of the unit 1. In these cases the officer is to reduce the fractions to shares. For example, a t of a ship is to be recorded by the figures 16; 1/2 by 32; and so on.
The tonnage to be recorded here is not the tonnage of any given ship, but aggregate tonnage of the shares owned by the party referred to, whether the ship is upon the register of Canada, that of Great Britain or other country. For example, the tonnage of a ship-owner who has 32 shares of a ship of 1,000 tons is 500, which figure is to be entered in the column of tonnage.
In cases of persons answering for institutions or companies, an opening, besides, themselves ship-owners, the entries are to be made on two lines.
Columns 7 and 8. In these columns it is merely the actual number of barges which is to be recorded, any fractional ownership having to be entered as 1/4, 1/2, 3/4. This mode of reckoning relates to barges, including trading scows, canal boats, and other such vessels, or bateaux fishing smacks and boats.
In the case of shipping companies, such as the "Ontario and Richelieu Company", for instance, of which the members are not, properly speaking, ship-owners, but simply stock of ,a joint stock company, the total amount of shipping is to be recorded in the enumerator's division in which is head office of the company.
The remaining part of this schedule is devoted to respecting our mining industry.
Column 20 will give the wages paid to miners while 22 will give the salaries of the manager, two columns together will represent the aggregate
yearly payments on account of services rendered in connection with the industry. The other columns need no explanation.
The instructions and directions contained in this Manual, and in all circulars emanating from the Department, are to be strictly adhered to by all officers employed in the taking of the census, under the sanctity of their oath of office. There may arise special cases requiring to be specially dealt with by particular instructions addressed to the officers concerned; but no officer is to take anything of this kind for granted. In other words, every officer is bound to discharge his duties in accordance with the directions contained in this Manual, unless he can show distinct orders, from the Department, authorizing deviation therefrom.
Secrecy, let it be repeated again, is one of the duties of the Chief Officers, Commissioners, Enumerator and other employees of the Census.
[the Census Act of 1886 was omitted]